Discussion:
40% of Europe is still radioactive, what's coming next?
(too old to reply)
Taka
2011-05-26 08:24:32 UTC
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The Fukushima Nuclear Disaster in Perspective

This press conference organized by Globla Research was held in the
context of Helen Caldicott's public lecture to Montreal on March 18,
2011.

First I want to present this report, produced by the New York Academy
of Sciences, a report on Chernobyl. It can be downloaded.(2) They
translated 5,000 articles from Russian for the first time into
English. It seems that nearly a million people have already died as a
result of Chernobyl, despite what the WH0(3) says and the IAEA.(4)
This is one of the most monstrous cover-ups in the history of
medicine. Because everybody should know about this.

Then we extrapolate through to Japan. Japan is by orders of magnitude
many times worse than Chernobyl. Never in my life did I think that six
nuclear reactors would be at risk.(5) I knew that three GE engineers
who helped design these Mark I GE reactors, resigned because they knew
they were dangerous.(6)

So Japan built them on an earthquake fault. The reactors partially
withstood the earthquake, but the external electricity supply was cut
off, and the electricity supplies the cooling water, a million gallons
a minute, to each of those six reactors. Without the cooling water,
the water [level] falls, and the rods are so hot they melt, like at
Three Mile Island, and at Chernobyl.

So the emergency diesel generators, which are as large as a house, got
destroyed by the tsunami, so there is no way to keep the water
circulating in the reactors.(7) Also, on the roofs of the reactors,
not within the containment vessel, are cooling pools. Every year they
remove about thirty tons of the most radioactive rods that you can
possibly imagine.(8) Each one is twelve feet long and half an inch
thick. It gives out so much radiation, that if you stand next to it
for a couple of minutes, you'll die. Not drop dead. Remember
Litvinenko, the Russian, who got poisoned by polonium?(9) You'll die
like that, with your hair falling out, and bleeding with massive
infection, like AIDS patients die.

And [the spent fuel rods] are thermally hot, so they have to be put in
a big pool, and continually cooled. The pool has really no roof.

There have been three hydrogen explosions, blowing off the roof of the
building, not the containment vessel of the core, but the roof. And
exposing the cooling pool.(10) Two of the cooling pools are dry. They
have no water in them. Meaning that the nuclear fuel rods are covered
with a material called zirconium. When zirconium is exposed to air, it
burns, it ignites. Two of the cooling pools at this moment are
burning. In the cooling pools are many times, like 10 to 20 times more
radiation than in each reactor core. In each reactor core is as much
long-lived radiation as would be produced by a thousand Hiroshima-
sized bombs. We are dealing with diabolical energy.

E=MC2 is the energy that blows up nuclear bombs. Einstein said nuclear
power is a hell of a way to boil water.(11) Because that is all
nuclear power is used for, to boil water through the massive heat,
turn it into steam, and turn a turbine which generates electricity.

Now when you fission uranium, 200 new elements are formed, all of
which are much more poisonous to the body than the original uranium.
(12) Although uranium is pretty poisonous. America used it in
Fallujah, and in Baghdad. And in Fallujah, 80 per cent of the babies
being born are grossly deformed.(13) They're being born without
brains, single eyes, no arms... The doctors have told the women to
stop having babies. The incidence of childhood cancer has gone up
about twelve times. This is genocide -- it's a nuclear war being
conducted in Iraq. The uranium that they're using lasts more than 4.5
billion years. So we're contaminating the cradle of civilization. "The
coalition of the willing!"

In the nuclear power plants, however, there is a huge amount of
radiation: two hundred elements. Some last seconds, some last millions
of years. Radioactive iodine lasts six weeks, causes thyroid cancer.
That's why people are saying, "Better take potassium iodide," because
that blocks the thyroid uptake of radioactive iodine, which later can
cause thyroid cancer.

In Chernobyl, over 20,000 people have developed thyroid cancer.(14)
They have their thyroids out, and they will die unless they take
thyroid replacement every day, like a diabetic has to take insulin.
Strontium-90 will get out, it lasts for 600 years. It goes to the
bone, where it causes bone cancer or leukemia. Cesium lasts for 600
years -- it's all over Europe. 40 per cent of Europe is still
radioactive. Turkish food is extremely radioactive. Do not buy Turkish
dried apricots, or Turkish hazelnuts. The Turks were so cross with the
Russians, they sent all their radioactive tea over to Russia after
Chernobyl.(15)

Forty per cent of Europe is still radioactive. Farms in Britain, their
lambs are so full of cesium they can't sell them. Don’t eat European
food.

But that's nothing compared to what's happening now. One of the most
deadly [nuclear byproducts] is plutonium, named after Pluto, god of
the underworld. One millionth of a gram, if you inhale it, would give
you cancer. Hypothetically, one pound of plutonium if evenly
distributed could give everyone on earth cancer. Each reactor has 250
kilograms of plutonium in it. You only need 2.5 kilograms to make an
atomic bomb, because plutonium is what they make bombs with.

So any country that has a reactor, works with your uranium. You
[Canada] are the biggest exporter of uranium in the world.(16) Canada
sells two things: it sells wheat for life, and uranium for death.
Plutonium is going to get out and spread all over the northern
hemisphere. It's already heading towards North America now.

Radioactive iodine, plus strontium, plus cesium, plus tritium, and I
could go on and on and on. When it rains, downs come fallout, and it
concentrates in food. If it gets into the sea, the algae concentrate
it, hundreds of times. And the crustaceans concentrate it, hundreds of
times. And then the little fish, then the big fish, then us.(17)

Because we stand on the apex of the food chain. You can't taste these
radioactive food elements, you can't see them, you can't smell them.
They're silent. When you get them inside your body, you don't suddenly
drop dead of cancer, it takes five to sixty years to get your cancer,
and when you feel a lump in your breast, it doesn't say, "I was made
by some strontium-90 in a piece of fish you ate twenty years ago."

All radiation is damaging. It's cumulative -- each dose you get adds
to your risk of getting cancer. The americium is more dangerous than
plutonium -- I could go on and on. Depends if it rains if you're going
to get it or not. If it rains and the radiation comes down, don't grow
food, and don't eat the food, and I mean don't eat it for 600 years.

Radioactive waste from nuclear power is going to be buried, I hear,
next to Lake Ontario. It's going to leak, last for millions of years,
it's going to get into the water, and into the food chains.
Radioactive waste will induce epidemics of cancer, leukemia, and
genetic disease for the rest of time. This is the greatest public
health hazard the world has ever witnessed, apart from the threat
every day of nuclear war.

Einstein said "the splitting of the atom changed everything, save
man's mode of thinking" -- very profound -- "and thus we drift toward
unparalleled catastrophe." We are arrogant, we have a lot of hubris,
and I think the reptilian mid-brain of some men's brains is
pathological.(18)

We are in a situation where we have harnessed the energy of the sun.
It is totally out of control. And there's simply nothing we can do
about it.

NOTES

1) Helen Caldicott is the founder of Physicians for Social
Responsibility, and is the author of "The New Nuclear Danger" (The New
Press, 2002).

2) "Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe For the People and the
Environment," Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
http://www.nyas.org/publications/annals/Detail.aspx?cid=f3f3bd16-51ba-4d7b-a086-753f44b3bfc1

3) "Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident," World Health
Organization. http://www-ns.iaea.org/appraisals/chernobyl.asp

4) "Consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident," International
Atomic Energy Agency. http://www-ns.iaea.org/appraisals/chernobyl.asp

5) For a general description of the complex, including cross-sections
of the six reactors, see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fukushima_I_nuclear_accidents

6) http://enwikipedia.org/wiki/GE_Three
Excerpt: On February 2, 1976, Gregory C. Minor, Richard B. Hubbard,
and Dale G. Bridenbaugh "blew the whistle" on safety problems at
nuclear power plants. The three engineers gained the attention of
journalists and their disclosures about the threats of nuclear power
had a significant impact. They timed their statements to coincide with
their resignations from responsible positions in General Electric's
nuclear energy division, and later established themselves as
consultants on the nuclear power industry for state governments,
federal agencies, and overseas governments.

7) "Japanese Scramble to Avert Meltdowns as Nuclear Crisis Deepens
After Quake," New York Times, March 12, 2011, By HIROKO TABUCHI and
MATTHEW L. WALD

8) The design manual for General Electric boiling water reactors was
posted as a PDF document on the "What Really Happened" website, and
can be downloaded at: http://whatreallyhappened.com/content/ge-manual-bwr6-reactor-design-and-operation

9) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poisoning_of_Alexander_Litvinenko
Excerpt: Alexander Litvinenko was a former officer of the Russian
Federal Security Service, FSB and KGB, who escaped prosecution in
Russia and received political asylum in the United Kingdom. He wrote
two books, "Blowing up Russia: Terror from within" and "Lubyanka
Criminal Group", where he accused the Russian secret services of
staging Russian apartment bombings and other terrorism acts to bring
Vladimir Putin to power. On 1 November 2006, Litvinenko suddenly fell
ill and was hospitalized. He died three weeks later, becoming the
first confirmed victim of lethal polonium-210-induced acute radiation
syndrome. According to doctors, "Litvinenko's murder represents an
ominous landmark: the beginning of an era of nuclear terrorism".
Litvinenko's allegations about the misdeeds of the FSB and his public
deathbed accusations that Russian president Vladimir Putin were behind
his unusual malady resulted in worldwide media coverage.

10) "Greater Danger Lies in Spent Fuel Than in Reactors,"
Keith Bradsher & Hiroko Tabuchi, NY Times, March 17, 2011
www.nytimes.com/2011/03/18/world/asia/18spent.html

"Radiation Spread Seen; Frantic Repairs Go On,"
David Sanger & William J. Broad, NY Times, March 17, 2011
www.nytimes.com/2011/03/18/world/asia/18intel.html

"U.S. Sees Array of New Threats at Japan’s Nuclear Plant,"
James Glanz & William J. Broad, NY Times, April 6, 2011
www.nytimes.com/2011/04/06/world/asia/06nuclear.html

"Focus on preventing explosions at Japan nuke plant,"
Mari Yamaguchi, Associated Press, April 6, 2011
http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20110406/ap_on_bi_ge/as_japan_earthquake_654

11) http://wisequotes.org/nuclear-power-is-one-hell-of-a-way-to-boil-water

12) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decay_product

13) "US Accused of Using Poison Gases in Fallujah,"
Democracy Now, Monday, November 29th, 2004
http://www.democracynow.org/2004/11/29/u_s_accused_of_using_poison

"Evidence of Extensive War Crimes, Unprecedented
in the annals of legal history," Niloufer Bhagwat,
Global Research, December 11, 2004
http://globalresearchca/articles/BHA412A.html

"Depleted Uranium Weapons: Dead Babies in Iraq and Afghanistan Are No
Joke," by Dave Lindorff, Global Research, October 20, 2009
http://www.globalresearch.ca/index.php?context=va&aid=15744

"The consequences of a US war crime:
Cancer rate in Fallujah worse than Hiroshima,"
Tom Eley, World Socialist, July 23, 2010
http://www.wsws.org/articles/2010/jul2010/fall-j23.shtml

"Research Links Rise in Fallujah Birth Defects and Cancers to US
Assault," Martin Chulov, The Guardian/UK, December 31, 2010
http://www.commondreams.org/headline/2010/12/31

14) "Chernobyl's Continuing Thyroid Impact,"
By Mary Shomon, December 15, 2003
http://thyroid.about.com/cs/nuclearexposure/a/chernob.htm

15) "Authorities lied on impact of Chernobyl in Turkey,"
Greenpeace Report
http://www.blackraiser.com/cherno.htm

16) WISE Report on the Worldwide Uranium Market
http://wwwwise-uranium.org/umkt.html

"Why is Uranium Important to Canada?"
Canadian Nuclear Association,
http://www.cna.ca/english/pdf/nuclearfacts/04-NuclearFacts-uranium.pdf

17) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bioaccumulation

18) http://www.crystalinks.com/reptilianbrain.html

SOURCE: http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/HL1105/S00138/the-fukushima-nuclear-disaster-in-perspective.htm

-------------------------------

This may be the end of mankind, destroyed by its own brain which
unleashed the atomic power by mining and concentrating the uranium
ore. Some more earthquakes as we are climbing into the next solar
cycle maximum and we are done. The next organisms prospering on Earth
could well be these fungi:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiotrophic_fungus

Taka
trigonometry1972@gmail.com |
2011-05-26 12:04:52 UTC
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I guess this explains the Ukrainian sunflower seed oil
I've seen in the Safeway food market. One of the few
food products that wouldn't be radioactive. It a fair bet
there are hot spot were the rain fell during the era of
Atomic bomb testing. I suppose a potassium fertilizer
would help some with the cesium and a limestone
fertilizer could help to some degree with the strontium.
As I recall these isotopes have about 30 year half lives.
Taka
2011-05-27 16:38:34 UTC
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Genpatsu Gypsies:
The Hidden Tragedy Of Japan's Nuclear Labor Force

Professor of Philosophy, Department of
International
and Cultural Studies, Tsuda College, Tokyo, Japan

Radiation exposure of nuclear power plant workers in Japan is a
fact
that is suppressed from public consciousness. While people sit in
their
homes and enjoy the comforts of modern living due in part to the
electricity that is supplied by nuclear energy, most remain relatively
unaware of the darker side of the process which goes into lighting
their
cozy dwellings.

In September, 1999, an accident occurred at the JCO uranium
processing
facility in the town of Tokai, Ibaragi prefecture, Japan. The accident
occurred when nuclear fuel suddenly rose to a critical temperature
because
of it's improper handling by workers. Of the three men who worked in
the
nuclear plant and were exposed to radiation, two of them, Hisashi
Ouchi and
Masato Shinohara, died several months later. The workers had not been
properly trained by their employers for the necessity of dealing with
nuclear fuel with utmost caution due its extreme danger during
processing.

This nuclear power related accident was the worst in Japan's
history
and revealed to the world that dangerous nuclear substances are
routinely
being handled by careless and unskilled employees who are often
ignorant of
the consequences of their tasks. But due to the mainstream media's
obfuscating coverage of the issue, still unknown to the Japanese
public is
the fact that the deaths of Ouchi and Shinohara were not the first
suffered
by nuclear plant workers due to radiation exposure. And they will
probably
not be the last.

Since the first nuclear power station in Japan began operation in
1966, nuclear plants have been maintained not only by engineers but
by a
variety of other workers. According to the Central Registration Center
of
Radiation Workers, the number of nuclear plant workers in Japan in the
fiscal year 1999, amounted to 64,922. About 10% of them are full-time
workers employed by nuclear companies while 90% are subcontracted
workers.
Thus, the vast majority of the nuclear industry's labor force is
comprised
of temporary employees who work at plants for between 1-3 months at a
time.
These people are mostly farmers, fishermen or day laborers seeking to
supplement their incomes or simply to get by. Some of them are
homeless.
They work mainly at nuclear power plants, but they also find jobs at
nuclear fuel facilities (refining, processing, reprocessing and using
plants), and at nuclear waste burial and storage facilities. The
workers
work twice or thrice a year at the same nuclear plant or move about to
other plants. Thus, the nickname they have been tagged with by
journalists,
"genpatsu gypsies" (ie., nuclear nomads).

The question that would immediately come to mind for most people
before working around nuclear materials is "how safe is it"?
Admittedly, as many of the workers' backgrounds are in farming or
fishing,
they are less educated as to the workings of high-tech, industrial
society,
and at any rate, they need the money. Some may be naive in regards to
trusting the government and the nuclear industry, who they think would
probably never intentionally mean to cause them harm.

Concerning the maximum permissible exposure to radiation, the
Ministry
of International Trade and Industry formerly rated safe levels of
radiation
exposure at 1 milli-Sievert a day, 30 mSv per three months and 50 mSv
a
year for nuclear plant workers while setting 5 mSv a year for the
general
population. However, it relaxed these limitations in 1990 to: 50 mSv
a
year and no limitations for the period of three months or a day for
nuclear
plant workers, while it tightened the ceiling for radiation exposure
for
ordinary citizens to 1 mSv a year. Bear in mind, there is much
controversy
about whether there is any safe dose of nuclear radiation whatsoever.

The purported reason MITI gave for changing the maximum
permissible
radiation exposure is obscure. But the hidden meaning is not hard to
decipher-- the restrictions of 30msv per three months and 1msv a day
are
too rigid and ineffective for the nuclear industry to abide by. If
they had
to record radiation exposure doses for workers at daily and tri-
monthly
intervals, it would be far more difficult to falsify data than under
the
mere limitation of exposure over a year's time.

Under MITI's new provision, a nuclear plant worker who was
exposed to
a radiation dose of 50 mSv in a short period (eg. a week) is judged as
"safe". But according to Kenji Higuchi, a photo journalist who has
investigated the situation of nuclear plant workers for nearly 30
years and
has observed the effects of low level radiation exposure, 50 mSv in a
short
period is extremely dangerous. Again, while in former times the
maximum
permissible exposure for nuclear plant workers was ten times that for
ordinary citizens (50 mSv : 5mSv), the new provision has widened the
difference to 50 times (50 mSv : 1 mSv). Higuchi stated in an
interview,
"This is an obvious policy of discrimination against nuclear plant
workers."

According to the Central Registration Center of Radiation
Workers, of
a total of 64,922 nuclear plant workers in Japan in the fiscal year
1999,
those who were exposed to radiation doses of less than 5 mSv numbered
59,319 (91.4 % of the total); 5-10 mSv, 3,280 workers (5.1 %); 10-15
mSv,
1,514 (2.3 %); 15-20 mSv, 773 (1.2 %); 20-25 mSv, 26 (0.0 %); 25-30
mSv, 4
(0.0%); 30-40 mSv, 2 (0.0 %); 40-50 mSv, 4 (0.0 %); and those who were
exposed to a radiation dose of more than 50 mSv numbered zero.
Therefore,
the maximum permissible exposure to radiation of 50 mSv set by MITI
was
observed, concludes the CRCRW. The Center has published annual reports
of
similar data every year since 1978 and demonstrated that there were no
problems about the safety of nuclear plant workers. The Center reports
that
the total number of nuclear plant workers from 1977 to March 2000
amounts
to 352,888 people.

According to Higuchi, however, the maximum permissible exposure
of 50
mSv a year is too high, though this is also the limitation of
radiation
exposure set by the International Commission on Radiological
Protection.
Since 1974, he visited many nuclear power stations in Japan. Based on
interviews with approximately 80 workers at nuclear plants as of 1993,
he
found that many of them suffered from skin inflammation, lymphatic
swelling, head balding, falling out of teeth, arthralgia (pain in the
joints), nose bleeding, rash on the skin of the whole body, cerebral
tumor,
leukemia, cataract, glaucoma, diploid, and languor throughout the
body.
These ex-employees could no longer work and could only lay in bed or
suffered from lingering illness.

In addition to the deaths of Ouchi and Shinohara that occurred at
the
JCO accident in 1999, Higuchi confirmed at least five other deaths of
nuclear plantworkers: Saburo Yamada, at age 20, by cerebral tumor in
1974;
Yoshimi Kitame, at age 49, by cerebral apoplexy in 1975; Shigeru Sato,
at
age 68, by leukemia in 1977; an anonymous supervisor at a nuclear
power
plant, at age 40, by an unknown disease in 1989; and Nobuyuki
Shimahashi,
at age 29, by leukemia in 1991.

According to an investigation report published in March 1977, by
Yanosuke Narasaki, a member of the Japanese House of Representatives,
the
deaths of nuclear plant workers numbered 106 at that time.

According to an investigation made in 1983 by anti-nuclear groups
in
Fukushima and Fukui Prefectures, the deaths of nuclear plant workers
in
both prefectures from 1970 to 1983 numbered 200. These groups and
Higuchi
estimated from this data the total number of workers in Japan's
nuclear
plants who died as a result of exposure to radiation to be between
300-400.
In 1993, the researchers drew an inference based on the same data that
workers who died as a result of exposure had grown to approximately
700
individuals. Higuchi estimates based on studies from the atomic
bombings
that anywhere from 1 to 17 persons per 10,000 subcontracted workers
"are
sure to die by cancer" due to routine radiation exposure on the job.

How is it that the reports published by the Central Registration
Center, MITI and nuclear power companies on radiation exposure of
nuclear
plant workers are at variance with witnesses of the workers
themselves? How
is it that the official position contradicts other well documented
studies
on the dangers of low level radiation exposure?

Higuchi heard nuclear power plant workers report that they worked
in
temperatures ranging from 30 degrees centigrade to 50 degrees
centigrade
inside the reactors during periods for inspection, maintenance and
decontamination. They work wearing masks and protection suits. But
since
the face-glass on the mask soon becomes clouded in the high
temperature and
humidity, they must take the mask off to finish their work in time. In
order to earn what is for most subcontracted workers-- a badly needed
daily
wage-- workers prefer bringing their task quickly to fulfillment
instead of
observing the regulations for protection against radiation exposure.
As a
result, the workers inhale air contaminated with high levels of
radiation.
This internal radiation exposure is more dangerous than external
exposure
through the skin.

Workers reported to Higuchi that they were scarcely warned about
the
danger of radiation exposure before going on the job. They carry
radiation
dose meters and pocket radiation alarm meters with them while working
inside the reactor. But they often take these off following the
direction
of their overseer or of their own accord. Ironically, due to the
insecure
nature of their jobs, they are afraid that they will be fired by their
employer if their radiation exposure dose exceeds the permitted level.
Under these circumstances, workers are in fact often exposed to far
more
radiation than the dosage level their radiation meters record.

Higuchi notes that nuclear plant workers who become sick and
consult
doctors of the hospitals nearby nuclear plants are often pronounced to
be
"not abnormal" and the doctors will not tell them their dosage level
of
radiation exposure. It proved that after the death of Shimahashi as
mentioned above, the nuclear company for which he worked had tampered
with
his medical records. Higuchi believes that such juggling of data
regularly
occurs in regards to the health inspections of nuclear plant workers
in
Japan.

When Kunio Murai and Ryusuke Umeda who suffered illnesses after
working at nuclear plants tried to bring suit against their employers,
they
were threatened by gangsters and then were offered 6,000,000 yen and
1,060,000 respectively (about 60,000 USD and 10,600 USD each) for
settlements from their subcontracting companies. In each case they
decided
to quit their law suits. Higuchi says these cases make apparent the
way in
which the nuclear industry unscrupulously hinders workers from
exposing to
the public the egregious lack of safety standards within the industry.

While the deaths of Ouchi and Shinohara caused by the JCO
accident
were from acute radiation sickness, some specialists in radio
therapeutics
believe that radiation exposure also causes diseases such as cancers
which
may arise many years after initial exposure. Higuchi decisively
states,"There is no such thing as a 'maximum permissible exposure to
radiation' for nuclear power plant workers. They are all more or less
exposed to radiation and will probably suffer from it, whether they
are
conscious of its symptoms or not."

The following month after the JCO plant accident, the Japanese
government announced that it would improve the system for emergency
medical
service for helping to save victims of radiation exposure from
accidents at
nuclear power plants. But both the government and nuclear power
industry
are still a long way off from being determined to review the safety
standards of plants and the conditions for workers. Improvements will
come
about only through public pressure. Concerned citizens from Japan and
abroad, labor unions, human rights, health care and environmental
advocates
will need to focus attention on this problem and expose these
dangerous and
inhumane policies being propagated by Japanese industry and the
government.

SOURCE: http://www.jca.apc.org/web-news/corpwatch-jp/96.html

SEE ALSO:

http://www.japantoday.com/category/kuchikomi-shukan-post/view/nuclear-cleanup-workers-being-recruited-from-societys-lowest-rungs

http://www.tokyoprogressive.org/content/dying-tepco-fukushima%E2%80%99s-nuclear-contract-workers-genpatsu-gypsies

http://enenews.com/
trigonometry1972@gmail.com |
2011-05-28 08:54:42 UTC
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Raw Message
Rumor has it that the Japanese (power companies?) have
put out the word the are willing to hire workers for 3 months or
50 REM/0.5 Sieverts of exposure for 200 or 300 thousand US dollars.

I guess they can put solar panels on all the contaminated ground?

Time to death is money...................Trig
Taka
2011-05-30 06:40:28 UTC
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Fukushima: How Many Chernobyls Is It?

Dr Scampa’s Lethal Doses Count Increases Dramatically

The world’s second big nuclear disaster occurred at Chernobyl Reactor
No. 4 in the Ukraine on Apr 26, 1986. Simply tagged as “Chernobyl,” it
is what the next big and well known nuke disaster, after the American
Three Mile Island, on March 28, 1979 came to be called. “Chernobyl”
ejected 30% of one 192-ton, three-month old reactor core. That’s 57.6
radioactive tons thrown into the air by fire and explosions.

The tiny radioactive and burning smoke particles have traveled around
the world many times since 1979, killing an estimated one million
people to date from radiation caused illnesses and cancers. This is
according to Editor Dr Janette Sherman’s exhaustive and widely
acclaimed book on 5,000 Chernobyl scientific papers recently published
by the New York Academy of Sciences [1].

Fukushima Daiichi Equals 50 Plus Chernobyls

As Dr. Michio Kaku, a world renowned CUNY theoretical physicist
pointed out on CNN March 18, 2011, Chernobyl involved one reactor and
only 57.6 Tons of the reactor core went into the atmosphere. In
dramatic contrast, the Fukushima Daiichi disaster immediately involved
six reactors and IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency, a UN
Agency) documented 2,800 Tons of highly radioactive old reactor cores.

Simple division tells us there are at least 48.6 Chernobyls in the
burning old reactor cores pumping fiery isotopes into the Earth’s
atmosphere. It is no stretch to say Fukushima Daiichi’s six reactors
and the dry holding pools for old reactor cores are equal to more than
50 Chernobyl disasters.

Further clarification is needed, of course, and it is being worked out
now by independent physicists. Note that the lethality of radioactive
reactor cores goes up the first 250,000 years they are out of the
reactor – not down.

Looking at the current Japanese meltdown as more than 50 Chernobyls is
just the start. In addition, the fate of the four nearby reactors at
Fukushima Daini is as yet unknown by the outside world. Working at the
nearby reactors, only 10 km (6 miles away) is a quick, painful death
sentence. They are inside the mandatory evacuation zone.

This much is known. All radioactive exposures are cumulative for each
human, animal and plant. What’s more, mutated genetic codes are passed
on to offspring forever. This means all Japanese and all Northern
Hemisphere inhabitants are suffering internal radioactive
contamination from Fukushima Daiichi reactors already.
Fukushima Equals 3,000 Billion Lethal Doses

Dr Paolo Scampa, a widely know EU Physicist, single handedly
popularized the easily understood Lethal Doses concept. “Lethal Doses”
is a world wide, well understood idea that strips Physics bare and
offers a brilliant, understandable explanation for all the physics
gobbledygook Intelligence agencies and their respective governments
use to disguise the brutal truths of the Fukushima Daiichi Disaster.

Three thousand billion (3,000,000,000,000) Lethal Doses of Radiation
means there are 429 Lethal Doses chasing each and every one of us on
the planet, to put it in a nutshell. This is up from about 70 Billion
Lethal Doses March 23, 2011. It is getting worse everyday without any
intervention by the US and the other nuclear powers.

VeteransToday calls on the world’s nuclear powers to intervene sooner
rather than later. It is up to the world’s only remaining Super Power,
the United States, to get the Japan Reactor Disaster Intervention
meeting officially underway.
The Fukushima Kill

The Fukushima Kill, already underway world wide, will certainly dwarf
that of Chernobyl. All US Super Power President Obama’s delay does is
increase the numbers of The Kill. That is a clear Choice. We call on
President Obama to re-visit that Choice.

Further, the Genetic and DNA changing aspects of the radioactivity now
in the air, spreading worldwide within a year, will spawn a grotesque
new assortment of radiation-degraded mutants; both human and of other
life forms.

Many of these creatures in the animal world will not survive long
outside the womb, if carried to term. What’s more, future Human
Genetic Mutants of ever-lower intelligence and greater, more grotesque
physical deformities are the genetic legacy of Humanity forevermore.
That is the new starting point for any rational and reality-based
national or foreign policy.
What We Know Now about Fukushima

Here is what is known more than 75 days after six reactors at the
Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Reactor Plant started a disastrous and
lethal nuclear meltdown on March 11, 2011.

- March 11, 14:46, a One Million Kiloton Earthquake measuring 9.0 on
the Richter Scale hammered Japan off-shore near the six Japanese
reactors. The reactors attempted to shut down automatically when
electronic sensors detected the earthquake. The huge earthquake
dropped the reactors three feet, moved Japan 8 inches to the West and
altered the tilt of the Axis of planet Earth.

- March 11, about 15:30, the giant Earthquake caused a tsunami up to
30 meters (98.4 Ft) high washed away all the fuel tanks for the
reactors Emergency Generators and all the reactors’ outside electrical
feeds. This was the Death Blow to the reactors.

The six Fukushima Daiichi reactors were dead in the water and their
fate sealed. Without an external source of electricity for the water
pumps and hot reactors, they are just so much radioactive scrap iron –
good for nothing. The internal temperature of the reactors started
climbing immediately.

- March 11, about 18:00, only two and a half hours later, multiple
reactor cores started melting down as the reactors internal
temperatures skyrocketed to the melting point of uranium and beyond –
a measured 1,718 Deg C (3,124.4 Deg F) past the melting point.

Uranium melts at 1,132.2 Deg C (2,069.9 Deg F.) The internal reactor
temperatures reached at least 2,850 Deg C, (5,162 Deg F.) The millions
of 1 mm Uranium fuel pellets in the reactors and in the core pools had
no defense at all without the powerful water pumps and billions of
gallons of cooling water against those temperatures.

The Uranium pellets simply melted forming a white hot lava-like
radioactive uranium isotope blob that was and probably still is super
heated by the power of the uranium atom itself. The highly radioactive
blob then burned through the graphite seals of the General Electric
Mark 1 Reactor Control Rods at the bottom of the American submarine
based reactor design of US Navy Admiral Hyman Rickover, now deceased.

General Electric copied the US Government financed Navy nuclear
reactor design for many commercial nuclear reactors. The Radioactive
Blobs trickled out of hundreds of control rod holes instead of melting
together to form a single giant, highly radioactive, burning lava
blob like that of Chernobyl.
The Solution, Then and Now, has Changed

World famous theoretical physicist Dr. Michio Kaku caught the world’s
attention on a March 18, 2011 CNN broadcast when he suggested the
Prime Minister of Japan immediately choose the “Chernobyl Option” for
the Fukushima Daiichi General Electric reactors.

Kaku said the Japanese PM should order the Japanese Air Self Defense
Force to bomb the reactors into submission with boron, sand, water and
concrete like the Red Army did to kill the out-of-control Chernobyl
reactor on orders of USSR President Gorbachev. Boron absorbs neutrons,
the radioactive heart of the reactors.

The time for Dr. Kaku’s “Chernobyl Option” has passed. Multiple
explosions destroyed the reactors and the swimming pools holding old
reactor cores weeks ago. Hundreds to thousands of tons of burning
highly radioactive reactor cores are scattered all over the Fukushima
Daiichi site. The reactors are releasing as much as a Tepco (Tokyo
Electric Power Company) measured 10 Quintillion (10,000 Trillion Bq)
radioactive counts per second of deadly radioactive smoke particles
into the Earth’s atmosphere.

The invisible, killing Radioactive Smoke is already all over the
Northern Hemisphere and everyone in it – each and every one – is
radiologically contaminated. The scope of Dr. Kaku’s once brilliant
former solution is unfortunately, now too small and ineffective.

Generally speaking, most Radiation cannot escape into the atmosphere
if it is covered by water. Honshu, Japan is an island and the Pacific
Ocean is conveniently located nearby.

Subsidence charges from multiple nuclear weapons buried by drilling
rigs 500 ft (152.4 meters) below and inland of the string of six
reactors must be engineered to slide the reactors into the sea. This
method works best if there is igneous or volcanic rock behind the
subsidence charges, to “bounce” the blast and pressure wave from and
“push” the trashed reactors area of the beachfront into the sea.

Specially equipped submarines can then pick up the pieces of reactor
cores from under water. The surface of the ocean blocks the escape of
radiation. The submarines must work fast to limit killing more of the
Earth’s Oceans.

Veterans Today calls on President Obama to authorize the disposal of
the six reactors at sea and the collection of the deadly radioactive
metals with submarines. We conclude there are no other options left.

The “Do Nothing Option”

The “Do Nothing Option” allows the deaths and maiming of many millions
of people to rapidly proceed. Doing nothing, by default, allows the
Fukushima Kill to ruthlessly continue unabated. Doing nothing is also
not acceptable from a practical standpoint; because, Japan does not
own the nuclear weapons to use themselves.

Nuke the reactors at Fukushima Daiichi right into the sea, Mr.
President.

SOURCE: http://www.veteranstoday.com/2011/05/28/fukushima-how-many-chernobyls-is-it/
Taka
2011-05-30 08:29:21 UTC
Permalink
Raw Message
Japan's Nuclear Cartel
Atomic Industry Too Close to Government for Comfort

After the oil crisis of the 1970s, Japan embraced atomic power with a
vengeance. Since then, the ties between the government and the nuclear
industry have become so intertwined that public safety is at threat.
Inspections are too lax, and anyone who criticizes the status quo can
find themselves out of a job.

It was a Friday morning, and Yukio Yamaguchi had left his gray
cardigan at home and was wearing his good, dark-brown suit instead. He
had boarded the Shinkansen, Japan's high-speed train, to travel to
Kashiwazaki-Kariwa on the west coast, home to the world's largest
nuclear power plant.

The reserved physicist with horn-rimmed glasses and a gray goatee is
an anti-nuclear activist with the Citizens' Nuclear Information
Center. He was on his way to attend the meeting of a commission that
addresses earthquake safety for power plants. This meeting, together
with TEPCO, the operator of the Kashiwazaki plant, was being held to
discuss the subject of earthquake and tsunami safety.

It was the morning of March 11, 2011.

Shortly after 1 p.m., Yamaguchi sat down in his usual seat, the second
from the left in the first row, in a wood-paneled conference room at
the Niigata Prefecture administration building. But what good was it
to warn people about the dangerous tidal waves? "It was the same as
always," says Yamaguchi. "One man against a dozen TEPCO people. And
they said that everything was in perfect order." Until 2:46 p.m., that
is, when TEPCO's "perfect order" was destroyed.

The building suddenly started shaking. It was an earthquake, and
everyone ran outside. The meeting was interrupted for 15 minutes, but
then it was reconvened. A TEPCO spokesman pointed out, once again, how
well the Kashiwazaki plant was protected against earthquakes and
tsunamis.

No one in the room suspected that in those very minutes, some 200
kilometers (125 miles) farther to the east, a wave more than 14 meters
(46 feet) high was rolling toward the six-meter protective wall at
TEPCO's second-largest nuclear complex.

The meeting in Niigata ended at about 4 p.m. Just as Yamaguchi was
checking into a local business hotel (the bullet train had stopped
running, because of the earthquake), TEPCO was notifying the
government that it had lost control over the reactors at its Fukushima
Daiichi nuclear power plant.

Making a Farce of Safety Claims

Time and again, the new realities have revealed the nuclear lobby's
safety slogans to be a farce. Apparently the earthquake alone caused
the first tubes to crack. The fuel rods melted down into redhot clumps
of uranium, eating holes into the floor of the reactor pressure vessel
in Unit 1 at an early juncture. And not even the risk of steam
explosions has been averted.

TEPCO's and the Japanese government's reassurances have proven to be
meaningless. Tens of thousands of people have had to leave their
homes, possibly for good. Even the mountain village of Iitate, almost
40 kilometers (25 miles) from the disaster site, has begun to be
evacuated.

For a full two months, TEPCO management tried to reassure the public
and denied all responsibility, even during its ineffectual attempts to
get the damaged reactors under control. It wasn't until last Friday
that TEPCO President Masataka Shimizu and Vice President Sakae Muto
finally announced their resignations -- a decision that was driven
mainly by the company's massive quarterly loss of €10.7 billion ($15.1
billion).

The choice of Toshio Nishizawa, another top executive at TEPCO, to
replace Shimizu will hardly change the company's inept crisis
management strategy. The crisis team will continue to meet on the
second floor of the TEPCO headquarters building in Tokyo, in a large
conference room with pieces of paper taped to the inside of the
windows. The top executives sit around a semicircular table. There is
Muto, head of TEPCO's nuclear division until now, who used to chair
the meetings, with Chairman Tsunehisa Katsumata sitting to his left.
Katsumata usually makes an appearance at 9 a.m. and returns between 6
and 7 p.m. Shimizu was rarely seen at the meetings recently, says
another executive.

There are several smaller, round tables scattered around the
conference table. Teams of outside experts, including specialists from
the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and France's Areva
nuclear power company, as well as Japanese scientists, sit at these
tables. Everyone stares at a large video screen showing dedicated
lines to all of TEPCO's power plants, including Kashiwazaki.

At the moment, however, they are usually looking at the bottom left
corner of the screen, where there is an image of Masao Yoshida, 56,
the head of the plant, who is reporting from the earthquake-proof room
at the Fukushima Daiichi plant. "Yoshida often has trouble getting his
message across," says one of the meeting participants. "The people at
the site have to make an effort to convey how serious the situation
really is."

Too Big to Fail

It isn't even entirely clear who is actually responsible for crisis
management. A few weeks ago, when SPIEGEL asked a TEPCO spokesman who
was running the crisis team, he replied: "Prime Minister (Naoto) Kan."
When a member of the Japanese parliament asked the government the same
question, it replied: "Primarily TEPCO." Meanwhile, the country's
Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) announced: "We all support
TEPCO in a unified manner in its management of the crisis." One of the
government's contributions to this support is financial -- Tokyo is
spending the astronomical sum of €43 billion to protect TEPCO from
ruin. The axiom "too big to fail," which guaranteed the survival of
the major European and American banks during the financial crisis, is
also proving to be applicable to Japan's largest electric utility.

TEPCO, the world's fourth-largest power company, employs more than
52,000 people and most recently posted annual revenues of about €35
billion. Before World War II, the government nationalized all electric
utilities and merged them into regional monopolies. The resulting 10
companies are now private, but they have retained their regional
dominance.

The Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) has consistently
treated the electric utilities as tools with which to execute its
industrial policy. In return, the utilities enjoy guaranteed profits.
Some 45 million people in the Tokyo region get their electricity from
TEPCO. The company is ubiquitous. It pays for research and sponsors
many news programs. It even built a giant electricity museum in the
center of Tokyo's popular Shibuya shopping district.

The Fukushima disaster destroyed much more than a power plant. It has
destabilized the entire system on which the Japanese nuclear industry
is based.

In Japan, the term "The Atomic Village" refers to an isolated elite
that has formed around the country's nuclear complex. Its residents
include TEPCO's nuclear divisions and the corresponding departments at
the METI. Scientists, politicians and journalists are also members of
this exclusive nuclear club.

Activist Yamaguchi has repeatedly run up against the secure walls
surrounding this Atomic Village. "They all feel connected," he says.
"They all studied at the top university in Tokyo, and after that they
worked here at TEPCO or at the agency that's supposed to regulate
TEPCO."

Part 2: A Threat to Japan's Democracy

Both the nuclear industry and its government regulators are also
closely intertwined with the political sphere. TEPCO's management is
among the key campaign donors to the conservative Liberal Democratic
Party (LDP). Meanwhile, the union that represents workers in the
electricity industry supports Prime Minister Kan's Democratic Party of
Japan (DPJ). So far neither of the two parties has taken a position
critical of the nuclear industry.

It's as if Austrian writer Robert Jungk's horrific vision of the
"nuclear state" had become reality. In his book "The Nuclear State,"
once required reading for Germany's protest generation, Jungk
describes how a high-risk technology can erode a democracy, even
without a nuclear disaster. Many of the protesters who faced water
cannons, batons and concertina wire during demonstrations in the 1970s
and 1980s at German sites like the Brokdorf nuclear power plant near
Hamburg, already felt as if they were living in the dreaded
surveillance state.

Germany was ultimately spared Jungk's vision, but in Japan it has
proven to be prophetic. In a consensus-based society, the nuclear
industry, electric utilities, political parties and scientists have
created a sacrosanct refuge for themselves that has become a threat to
Japan's democracy.

It is clear that wheeling and dealing in the Atomic Village played a
role in the Fukushima disaster. According to TEPCO's calculations, the
maximum possible height of a tsunami in Fukushima was 5.7 meters. The
company acted on the authority of a committee made up of members of
Japan's engineering society. But a majority of the commission's 35
members had once worked for electric utilities or think tanks funded
by the utilities.

'The Japanese Public Is Partly Responsible'

Even many media organizations, as recipients of generous payments for
the electricity industry, are part of the cartel. "The Japanese public
is partly responsible for the disaster in Fukushima," says activist
Yukio Yamaguchi. Nature triggered the catastrophe, but Japan itself
created the conditions that allowed it to happen, he says.

Ironically, hardly any country on earth is more poorly suited for high-
risk nuclear technology than earthquake-plagued Japan. A folk legend
describes the islands as being perched on the back of a giant fish in
the ocean, a fish that is constantly trembling and twitching -- not a
good basis for operating the world's third-largest collection of
nuclear reactors. Only the United States and France have more nuclear
plants.

Nevertheless, until disaster struck Japan continued to forge ambitious
expansion plans. To reach its goal of producing half of all the
electricity it consumes with nuclear energy by 2030, the country had
planned to build a double-digit number of new reactors.

The oil shock of the 1970s came as a wakeup call for Japan, a rising
industrial nation at the time. It prompted the government to define
the development of a strong nuclear industry as a national goal. Since
then, Japanese politicians have inextricably linked the country's rise
to prominence and prosperity with nuclear energy.

Buoyed by the prospect of being largely independent of imports of fuel
for energy production, Japanese politicians even decided to establish
a plutonium industry. Fast breeder reactors, which produce more fuel
than they consume, seemed too tempting to pass up.

'Brainwashed'

While most of the world's nuclear nations were abandoning this risky
and expensive option (Germany turned its fast breeder reactor in
Kalkar near the Dutch border into the most expensive amusement park of
all time), Japan inaugurated its Monju breeder reactor and, in 1993,
laid the foundation for a reprocessing plant in Rokkasho on the
northern tip of the main island, Honshu. At an estimated cost to date
of more than €14 billion, the facility is one of the most expensive
industrial plants in the world, and yet it has never been in full-
fledged operation.

"Our country was literally brainwashed," says Taro Kono, a member of
the lower house of the Japanese Diet for the conservative LDP. "Atomic
energy is a cult in Japan."

Kono, 48, comes from one of Japan's major political dynasties. He has
been a member of the parliament for almost 15 years and is notorious
for his independent views. He is one of the few members of his
parliamentary group to have dared to question Japan's nuclear policy.
As a member of parliament who has one of the best election results in
Japan, Kono feels even more emboldened to express his opinion. "This
is the only reason I can afford to criticize the nuclear industry in
the first place," he says with a smile.

"Now TEPCO is saying that the tsunami was much bigger than expected,"
says Kono. "But what were they expecting?" This, he says, was the
conclusion reached by a commission dominated by the power companies,
which included almost no earthquake or tsunami experts. "It determined
how big the tsunami should be," Kono says. "That's why the electric
utilities are the ones who are mainly responsible. It's as simple as
that." But for Kono, finding allies is difficult in a country where
any criticism of the nuclear industry can end the careers of
scientists, journalists and politicians.

Scientists Keep Quiet

TEPCO's influence even extends into scientific laboratories. Many
scientists, especially at the University of Tokyo, are partial to
TEPCO. The company contributes millions to the university and supports
many associations, think tanks and commissions. This form of public
relations has been useful to the company until now.

Not a single scientist or engineer at the University of Tokyo has ever
been known to have spoken critically about TEPCO, even after the
accident in Fukushima. "If you are a critic of nuclear power, you are
not promoted, you don't even become a professor, and you are certainly
not appointed to key commissions," says Kono.

At times, doubts are indeed voiced about the system of crony
commissions. Five years ago, for example, seismologist Katsuhiko
Ishibashi resigned from the committee that had been tasked with
revising the safety regulations for Japanese nuclear power plants. Of
the 19 committee members, 11 were also members of committees within
the Japanese electricity lobby. Ishibashi criticized the decision-
making process on the committee for being "unscientific." "If we do
not fundamentally improve our technical standards for nuclear power
plants, Japan could experience a nuclear catastrophe after an
earthquake," he warned at the time.

But it is difficult to get through to the Japanese public with such
warnings, given the millions upon millions of euros TEPCO spends on
media and public relations each year. Its image cultivation campaign
even includes the sponsorship of news programs, including Tokyo
station TBS's "News 23," Fuji's "Mezamashi TV" and TV Asahi's "Hodo
Station." In TEPCO's world, everyone gets a piece of a very large
nuclear pie.

Part 3: Keeping the Media Sweet

The company also has a habit of placating journalists with luxury
trips. For example, on the day the tsunami inundated the Fukushima
Daiichi nuclear plant, TEPCO Chairman Katsumata was keeping
journalists company in a nice new hotel in China -- on an "educational
trip."

"We have built the structure in such a way that everyone has an
interest in supporting nuclear power," says Kono. Stricter inspectors,
critical reporters and obstreperous citizens would only get in the
way.

There has been no lack of alarm signals, but they have never produced
any consequences. The biggest scandal to date came to light through a
disgruntled employee. In 1989, Kei Sugaoka, a US engineer with
Japanese roots, inspected Reactor 1 at the now-stricken Fukushima
Daiichi plant. He worked for General Electric (GE), the plant's
manufacturer.

Sugaoka was startled to find cracks in the steam dryer, "pretty
sizeable ones," as he recalls today. It later occurred to him that the
device had been installed incorrectly -- by a 180-degree rotation. He
notified his superiors. Then his team waited a few days for further
instructions, while receiving their full pay.

Safety Revelations

When the men were called back to the power plant, their higher-ups had
apparently agreed on the next steps. Sugaoka says that his supervisor
at GE told him to edit the inspection video and remove the sections in
which the cracks were visible. "And that was what my team did," says
the engineer, "while two men from TEPCO looked on."

Nevertheless, he felt uneasy about the whole thing. After returning
home, he wrote down what had happened and kept the documents. After
being fired from GE in 1998, Sugaoka was determined to bring the
affair to light. On June 28, 2000, he wrote a letter to Japan's
nuclear safety agency NISA, describing what had happened. He wrote
three or four similar letters after that.

Sugaoka's revelations shook the country. It soon became clear that
TEPCO had systematically falsified safety reports. The company's
president and four other senior executives had to resign over the
affair, and the government temporarily shut down 17 reactors.

About that time, it was also revealed that several Japanese TEPCO
employees had reported safety concerns to the regulatory agency. It,
in turn, promptly disclosed the whistleblowers' identities to TEPCO,
as a NISA spokesman confirmed.

Gentleman Whistleblower

The scandal had no long-term consequences in Japan. In Fukushima,
however, it brought Eisaku Sato into the arena. Sato, the former
governor of Fukushima Prefecture, is a distinguished, silver-haired
gentleman. He loves antiques and golf, and he opposes nuclear energy.

After discovering how carelessly NISA had treated the complaints from
inside the Atomic Village, he decided to get involved. From 2002 to
2006, 21 insiders contacted Sato directly, and members of his staff
met secretly with the whistleblowers. After recording and documenting
the complaints, they forwarded them to NISA.

Whenever nothing happened for a period of time after the complaints
had been submitted, Sato's staff members made more inquiries. "No one
was keeping tabs on TEPCO," says Sato, who is wearing dark-blue sports
jacket with a pocket square. "Fukushima Prefecture took on the job
that NISA really ought to be doing. The main problem wasn't TEPCO at
all, but NISA. They simply didn't pass on the complaints."

The ministries, regulatory agencies and power companies are so closely
intertwined that conflicts of interest are virtually built into the
system. One of the objectives of the powerful industry ministry, METI,
is to promote the nuclear industry. Another goal is to export Japanese
nuclear technology to emerging economies. The problem, however, is
that NISA, the agency that is supposed to monitor the nuclear
industry, comes under the authority of the nuclear-friendly METI.

The Power of Amakudari

Not surprisingly, the controls are lax, reports nuclear engineer
Tetsunari Iida. He once designed the Japanese version of the CASTOR
containers that are used to transport highly radioactive nuclear waste
in Europe. To this day, he remembers how shocked he was as a novice in
the industry. "I was just a 20-year-old boy, but what I did was simply
rubber-stamped," says Iida.

Even 20 years ago, Iida experienced how nuclear power plant workers
would signal to each other when an inspector was approaching. A worker
would quickly wipe off a leaking heat exchanger to make it look
perfectly in order, and would then disappear. The inspector noticed
what was going on but ignored it. "Our inspections are a complete
sham," says Iida.

The close-knit relationship between the industry and regulators is so
legendary that it even has a name: "amakudari," or "descended from the
sky," which refers to the practice of government officials, after
serving out their terms at a ministry, directly switching to lucrative
positions with the electricity giants.

One of the vice-president positions at TEPCO has been reserved for an
amakudari official for decades. A man named Takeo Ishihara was once a
deputy state secretary, in a position titled "coordinator of nuclear
policy." After TEPCO hired him in 1962, he became a managing director
and then a vice-president.

In 1980, a state secretary at the Energy Ministry switched to TEPCO,
where he performed the same duties. Other senior officials followed in
1990 and 1999. In April, a member of parliament with the Communist
Party asked the government whether these industry jobs were "reserved
slots." A spokesman said: "You could call it that."

Arrogance Meets Incompetence

In terms of the hands-on work at the plants, most workers are
temporary workers and day laborers working for subcontractors and sub-
subcontractors. But even the highly qualified specialists are often
not employed by TEPCO, but by manufacturers like Hitachi and Toshiba,
or even directly by General Electric in the United States.

These experts know all too well how little the TEPCO managers know
about their own reactors. "The people at TEPCO," says Tsuneyasu Satoh,
who worked as a subcontractor in Fukushima for many years, "are
bureaucrats who stop by once in a while to tell us what to do."

TEPCO's engineers display a combination of arrogance and incompetence.
When Sugaoka went public with the scandal over falsified safety
reports, the company conducted an internal analysis and even admitted
to significant deficiencies. According to the analysis, TEPCO
engineers were "overly self-confident with regard to their nuclear
expertise." For this reason, the analysis continued, they did not
report problems to the government, "as long as they believed that
safety was assured."

However, neither TEPCO nor NISA drew any conclusions from these
insights. Even the scandal did nothing to stop the operating license
for the extremely old Reactor 1 at Fukushima Daiichi being extended
for another 10 years. Even worse, the regular intervals at which power
plants are inspected can now be extended from 13 to 16 months.

"That's the consequence of the entire scandal for TEPCO," Aileen Mioko
Smith, an anti-nuclear activist with the nongovernmental organization
Green Action Japan, says derisively, "new standards and ultimately
fewer inspections."

Part 4: 'No Commento'

When the TEPCO spokesman is asked whether the company has ever
implemented a proposal by the anti-nuclear activists, he says: "I
don't understand the question."

Even after the disaster, the company still tried to throw sand in the
eyes of journalists. Reporters with the television stations and major
newspapers have been camped out on the ground floor of the TEPCO
headquarters building for the last 10 weeks. In press conferences,
they are usually presented with a jumble of supposedly precise raw
data. But what are reporters supposed to do with hundreds of pieces of
data without any context at all, particularly as they often turn out
to be incorrect soon afterwards?

TEPCO officials like to talk about the data but prefer to avoid the
subject of responsibility. Whether it's amakudari, political
contributions or funding for scientific research, a TEPCO spokesman
has a similar response to questions on all of these issues: "No
commento."

Fired After Reporting on Fukushima

Takashi Uesugi, a television journalist, is one of those reporting on
how sensitively the electricity giant reacts when unflattering
information manages to get out. He is a popular television and radio
host in Japan, and his programs are both political and entertaining.
Uesugi is normally an affable 43-year-old who likes to play golf.
Until the Fukushima accident, he had little to do with nuclear power.

But he has always taken issue with his counterparts at the major
newspapers, who he sees as little more than the PR agents of the
ministers they report about. After the disaster in Fukushima, Uesugi
also camped out in the TEPCO lobby, because he wanted to know what was
happening in the reactor.

On March 15, at 1 p.m., Uesugi was conducting a live broadcast on the
Tokyo Broadcasting System (TBS). He said that radioactivity was
apparently escaping from Reactor 3 and that this was being reported
abroad. "It was an obvious thing to report," he says. After the
broadcast, however, his boss came to him and told him he was fired,
says Uesugi. He hasn't worked for TBS since then. A spokesman for the
TBS programming department says that the station had already decided
earlier to sever its working relationship with Uesugi, and that there
was no pressure from TEPCO.

Uesugi doesn't believe these claims, particularly as he also
experienced problems soon afterwards on another TV program. The
electric utility association ended its sponsorship of "Asahi Newstar"
after Uesugi had invited a critic of nuclear power to appear as a
guest on his program. The station claims that it had already planned
to end the electric utility sponsorship. A TEPCO spokesman
characterizes as "inconceivable" the notion that TEPCO would try to
pressure a journalist like Uesugi.

Intimidated

Meanwhile, the Japanese government has begun asking Internet providers
to remove "false reports" about Fukushima from the web, arguing that
the population should not be troubled unnecessarily. "This is worse
than in Egypt and China," says Uesugi. According to the government
request, all reports that "harm the public order and morale" should be
removed.

Nuclear critic Robert Jungk devoted an entire chapter to the
industry's treatment of its adversaries. The chapter is titled: "The
Intimidated."

In Japan, the insiders who talked about the abuses at TEPCO were
intimidated, as were journalists who reported on these abuses, like
Takashi Uesugi.

There are some indications that Eisaku Sato, the distinguished former
governor of Fukushima Prefecture, was also a victim of intimidation.
Sato attempted to oppose the power of the atom. He had aligned himself
with the governors of other prefectures with nuclear plants, and he
tried to establish an axis critical of nuclear power.

Sato, a relatively minor local politician, invited experts from all
over the world to formulate a new Japanese energy policy. He was
perhaps the most influential Japanese critic of the nuclear industry
-- until his political career ended abruptly in 2006, when he was
arrested on charges of corruption. He and his brother were accused of
having collected an inflated price for a piece of property from a
construction company that had worked for the prefecture.

'Same People as Always'

A court found Sato guilty, and although an appeals court in Tokyo
later reduced the sentence, it did not overturn the guilty verdict. He
has now taken his case to the Japanese Supreme Court, where he hopes
to be declared innocent.

A former Tokyo prosecutor says that Sato's brother did not make any
profit at all with the sale of the property. Besides, the public
prosecutor assigned to the case at the time has since been sentenced
to 18 months in prison for planting false evidence on a high-ranking
government official he had investigated in another case.

But who, if not critics like Sato, can hold people responsible for the
disaster? At least the statement made by Prime Minister Kan last
Wednesday offers a hopeful outlook. He announced a new plan to
decartelize the regulatory agencies, break up the regional monopolies
of the Japanese electric utilities and rethink the country's energy
policy "from the bottom up."

Aileen Mioko Smith, the activist with Green Action Japan, doesn't have
much faith in such promises. She already dreads what she expects will
be Japan's usual handling of such disasters. "A commission will be
formed to examine the accident, and it will consist of exactly the
same people as always."

SOURCE: http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,764907-4,00.html

RELATED: http://ex-skf.blogspot.com/
Taka
2011-05-31 16:50:14 UTC
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Raw Message
Actually, Tokyo radiation levels have NOT "returned to their pre-
tsunami levels". They are almost double that. According to the JAIST
site, on March 10 the level was 0.0338 micrograys. But yesterday it
was 0.0609 micrograys.

Even worse, the monitoring sensor for these readings turned out to be
18 meters above ground. In a Japan Times article three days ago, an
industry-shill expert said this was necessary to get an accurate
reading. Surprisingly, the article actually admitted that radiation
levels on the ground would be 2-3 times the official number from 18
meters above ground.

This would not have been true pre-meltdown, since radiation levels
before the Fukushima disaster were not elevated by radioactive
particles gradually accumulating on the ground. Therefore, it could be
said that as we walk around Tokyo, we are actually exposed to 4-6
times the pre-quake radiation level.

Even worse, micrograys don't give the effect on biological tissue. The
microgray reading is different for each of alpha, beta and gamma
emission. What we need is the "effective dose", which is measured in
Sieverts. I haven't seen that one listed for Tokyo. It's incorrect to
simply say it's the same number as the microgray reading.

Finally, the entire topic of internal emitters is completely ignored.
These are much worse than external emitters like an x-ray or
international flight. You don't breathe in an x-ray and have it
switched on inside you for the rest of your life.

These dose measurements are somewhat meaningless when the really
important question for people is whether they inhaled or ingested a
particle that will be with them forever, exposing cells at point-blank
range to levels of radiation much higher than the measured microgray
level at 18 meters above ground.

What we need is a volumetric measurement of contamination - that
means, becquerels per square meter of air. But nobody is even
mentioning this, let alone releasing or publishing that kind of data.
But that's the one you really want to know. They wear masks in the
Fukushima zone. Why don't people wear them in Tokyo? They release
becquerel per kg or liter data for water and foodstuffs. Why not for
air?

I doubt the Met singers are aware of this dosimetric stuff, they are
probably just going with their gut reaction. But they are right in
thinking that Tokyo is most certainly not back to normal. It isn't.
And, it continues to get worse every day as more and more radioactive
particles keep gradually accumulating on the ground.

SOURCE: http://www.japantoday.com/category/entertainment/view/new-york-metropolitan-opera-stars-fearing-radiation-skip-japan-tour
trigonometry1972@gmail.com |
2011-06-01 15:38:13 UTC
Permalink
Raw Message
Why isn't Japan on a war footing. They should be building steel
hull(s) that can be
fit over the reactors. Are the fuddies tha pass for leaders frozen in
denial and fear?
Taka
2011-06-02 01:37:48 UTC
Permalink
Raw Message
Post by ***@gmail.com |
Why isn't Japan on a war footing. They should be building steel
hull(s) that can be
fit over the reactors. Are the fuddies tha pass for leaders frozen in
denial and fear?
The Japanese public will be docile unless you take the rice from
them. Wait till the next rice harvest when they find out that their
new rice is laden with Stroncium, Cesium, Plutonium etc.

“The initial protest occurred in the small fishing town of Uozu,
Toyama Prefecture, on 23 July 1918. Starting with peaceful
petitioning, the disturbance quickly escalated to riots, strikes,
looting, incendiary bombings of police stations and government offices
and armed clashes. By mid-September 1918, over 623 disturbances had
occurred in 38 cities, 153 towns and 177 villages, with over 2 million
participants.”
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rice_Riots_of_1918

And after the decrease in seafood consumption due to radiation
concentrating in the marine species the sedative effects of Omega-3
will wear out and then you will see the fully arachidonic acid fueled
Japanese. Expecting a war to break out unless the government feeds
them increased levels of Omega-3 supplements. Then we will get far
more neurodegenerative diseases ... And wait for the bystander and
transgeneration effects to show up. So much for the "cheap" nuclear
energy.

http://www.nuclearconsult.com/docs/information/risk/health/NontargetedRadiationEffects.pdf

http://www.nature.com/onc/journal/v30/n6/abs/onc2010480a.html

Taka
Taka
2011-06-02 07:09:08 UTC
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Raw Message
Multiple Stressors: A Challenge for the Future
NATO Security through Science Series, 2007, 2007, 139-154, DOI:
10.1007/978-1-4020-6335-0_10

Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability in the Offspring of Irradiated
Parents

Yuri E. Dubrova

So far, mutation induction in the germline of directly exposed parents
has been regarded as the main component of the genetic risk of
ionising radiation. However, recent data on the delayed effects of
exposure to ionising radiation challenge for the existing paradigm.
The results of some publications imply that exposure to ionising
radiation results in elevated mutation rates detectable not only in
the directly irradiated cells, but also in their non-irradiated
progeny. Here I review the data on transgenerational instability
showing that radiation-induced instability in the germline of
irradiated parents manifests in their offspring, affecting their
mutation rates and some other characteristics. This paper summarises
the data on increased cancer incidence and elevated mutation rates in
the germline and somatic tissues of the offspring of irradiated
parents. The possible mechanisms of transgenerational instability are
discussed.

SOURCE: http://www.springerlink.com/content/mjm0751563282j12/

John B Little 2003 J. Radiol. Prot. 23 173 doi:
10.1088/0952-4746/23/2/304

Genomic instability and radiation

Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells, and is thought to
be involved in the process of carcinogenesis. Indeed, a number of rare
genetic disorders associated with a predisposition to cancer are
characterised by genomic instability occurring in somatic cells. Of
particular interest is the observation that transmissible instability
can be induced in somatic cells from normal individuals by exposure to
ionising radiation, leading to a persistent enhancement in the rate at
which mutations and chromosomal aberrations arise in the progeny of
the irradiated cells after many generations of replication. If such
induced instability is involved in radiation carcinogenesis, it would
imply that the initial carcinogenic event may not be a rare mutation
occurring in a specific gene or set of genes. Rather, radiation may
induce a process of instability in many cells in a population,
enhancing the rate at which the multiple gene mutations necessary for
the development of cancer may arise in a given cell lineage.
Furthermore, radiation could act at any stage in the development of
cancer by facilitating the accumulation of the remaining genetic
events required to produce a fully malignant tumour. The experimental
evidence for such induced instability is reviewed.

SOURCE: http://iopscience.iop.org/0952-4746/23/2/304


SEE ALSO:

http://www.labome.org/topics/humanities/history/modern/20th/chernobyl-nuclear-accident-21143.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionizing_radiation
trigonometry1972@gmail.com |
2011-06-02 11:07:05 UTC
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Raw Message
And foods prices are up globally so this will be painful
to Japanese public.

It does bring the question as to the former output the
the region banned from production and the region
in the gray zone were the foods are grown but
contaminated to an "acceptable level." How large
a percentage are these of total nation food output?

Perhaps we will see the sleeping giant raise in
anger?

Some might consider immigrating to the States?
However, this nation is in decline and the leaders
(Congress and party critters) and want-to-be i.e. XXXXX
are incapable.

Beware of common sense as it often a wrong sense...........Trig
Taka
2011-06-03 16:15:44 UTC
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Raw Message
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Volume 243, Number 2, 473-478, DOI: 10.1023/A:1016046719243

Evaluation of the Plutonium Content in the Human Body Due to Global
and Chernobyl Fallout

O. A. Bondarenko, B. B. Aryasov and N. Ya. Tsygankov

This paper estimates the body content and excretion levels of Pu from
the combined intake from the global and Chernobyl fallout. The
approach developed allows to estimate the contributions from each
component. This approach is necessary for estimating the average and
collective doses to the population of different regions or
settlements. Verifications of this approach have been made using
autopsy data (the early stage of the accident, Kiev residents, the
late stage inhabitants of the Ovruch region) which are in good
agreement. Assessment of the dose from transuranics to the population
of the Ukraine required using bioassay data. This was achieved by
measuring the urinary excretion of Pu.

SOURCE: http://www.springerlink.com/content/k07jx6000963501h/


Carcinogenesis. 2004 Jun;25(6):1063-7. Epub 2004 Jan 23.

Plutonium targets the p16 gene for inactivation by promoter
hypermethylation in human lung adenocarcinoma.

Belinsky SA, Klinge DM, Liechty KC, March TH, Kang T, Gilliland FD,
Sotnic N, Adamova G, Rusinova G, Telnov V.
SourceLovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Lung Cancer Program,
2425 Ridgecrest Drive SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108, USA.

Lung cancer from radon or (239)plutonium exposure has been linked to
alpha-particles that damage DNA through large deletions and point
mutations. We investigated the involvement of an epigenetic mechanism,
gene inactivation by promoter hypermethylation in adenocarcinomas from
plutonium-exposed workers at MAYAK, the first Russian nuclear
enterprise established to manufacture weapons plutonium.
Adenocarcinomas were collected retrospectively from 71 workers and 69
non-worker controls. Lung adenocarcinomas were examined from workers
and non-worker controls for methylation of the CDKN2A (p16), O(6)-
methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), death associated protein
kinase (DAP-K), and Ras effector homolog 1 genes (RASSF1A). The
prevalence for methylation of the MGMT or DAP-K genes did not differ
between workers and controls, while a higher prevalence for
methylation of the RASSF1A gene was seen in tumors from controls. In
marked contrast, the prevalence for methylation of p16, a key
regulator of the cell cycle, was increased significantly (P = 0.03) in
tumors from workers compared with non-worker controls. Stratification
of plutonium exposure into tertiles also revealed a striking dose
response for methylation of the p16 gene (P = 0.008). Workers in the
plutonium plant where exposure to internal radiation was highest had a
3.5 times (C.I. 1.5, 8.5; P = 0.001) greater risk for p16 methylation
in their tumors than controls. This increased probability for
methylation approximated the 4-fold increase in relative risk for
adenocarcinoma in this group of workers exposed to plutonium. In
addition, a trend (P = 0.08) was seen for an increase in the number of
genes methylated (> or =2 genes) with plutonium dose. Here we
demonstrate that exposure to plutonium may elevate the risk for
adenocarcinoma through specifically targeting the p16 gene for
inactivation by promoter methylation.
PMID:14742312

----------------------------------------

That was pre-Fukushima ... We have now blown at least several hundred
pounds of plutonium (about enough for 50 H-bombs) into the atmosphere
during the #3 reactor nuclear explosion from the dirty MOX fuel. And
50 Chernobyls are still sitting at the place in highly unstable
condition gradually releasing deadly radiation into the atmosphere.
When will the greedy bastards get the spent fuel rods off the sites
like Hamaoka, Onagawa etc? Looks like the developed countries are
"developed" and rich only because of using this extremely dangerous
"free" energy generation systems. You can breathe CO2 from fosil
fuels and the plants will happily clean it out of the atmosphere over
the time but you will be dead in notime trying to approach the nuclear
waste. Even the electronics of the robots is destroyed by ionizing
radiation.

Taka


Taka
2011-06-04 03:06:42 UTC
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Raw Message
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Vol
15, No 3 (2009)

Childhood Leukemia and Cancers Near German Nuclear Reactors:
Significance, Context, and Ramifications of Recent Studies

Rudi H. Nussbaum

A government-sponsored study of childhood cancer in
the proximity of German nuclear power plants
(German acronym KiKK) found that children < 5 years
living < 5 km from plant exhaust stacks had twice the
risk for contracting leukemia as those residing > 5 km.
The researchers concluded that since “this result was
not to be expected under current radiation-epidemiological
knowledge” and confounders could not be
identified, the observed association of leukemia incidence
with residential proximity to nuclear plants
“remains unexplained.” This unjustified conclusion
illustrates the dissonance between evidence and
assumptions. There exist serious flaws and gaps in the
knowledge on which accepted models for population
exposure and radiation risk are based. Studies with
results contradictory to those of KiKK lack statistical
power to invalidate its findings. The KiKK study’s ramifications
add to the urgency for a public policy debate
regarding the health impact of nuclear power generation.

SOURCE: http://www.ijoeh.com/index.php/ijoeh/article/view/1151
Taka
2011-06-05 02:01:37 UTC
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Raw Message
"All large nuclear power reactors, regardless of their design, produce
enormous inventories of deadly radioactive poisons. Each of the 104
U.S. commercial operating nuclear reactors – like the reactors at
Fukushima Daiichi – stores their highly irradiated spent fuel on site
in spent fuel pools; each pool holds 5 to 10 times more long-lived
radioactivity then does the reactor core. A single spent fuel pool
holds more Cesium-137 than was deposited by all
atmospheric nuclear weapons tests in the Northern Hemisphere combined.
[1] Thus a catastrophic accident at one nuclear reactor has the
potential to release massive amounts of radioactive fallout, and
unfortunately, experience has borne this out."

SOURCE: http://www.psr.org/nuclear-bailout/resources/lessons-from-fukushima-and.pdf

SOME HISTORY: http://www.idealist.ws/nevada.php

What they are hiding inside the nuclear reactors is far worse that the
global warming scam ...
Taka
2011-06-05 16:31:53 UTC
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Chernobyl: Consequences of the catastrophe 25 years later

by Janette D. Sherman, M.D., and Alexey V. Yablokov, Ph.D.

Editor’s note: The Bulletin of Atomic Scientists asked Dr. Sherman,
recognized worldwide for her expertise on Chernobyl, to write this
article last year, then rejected it just before deadline, probably
considering it too alarming. In it, she reports the widespread
expectation of another nuclear power plant failure and the
catastrophic consequences. Now, a few months later, the world
commemorates the 25th anniversary of Chernobyl while watching the
Fukushima meltdown.

For more than 50 years, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) have abided by an agreement
that in essence allows them to cover each other’s back – sometimes at
the expense of public health. It’s a delicate balance between
cooperation and collusion.

Signed on May 28, 1959, at the 12th World Health Assembly, the
agreement states:

“Whenever either organization proposes to initiate a programme or
activity on a subject in which the other organization has or may have
a substantial interest, the first party shall consult the other with a
view to adjusting the matter by mutual agreement,” and continues: The
IAEA and the WHO “recognize that they may find it necessary to apply
certain limitations for the safeguarding of confidential information
furnished to them. They therefore agree that nothing in this agreement
shall be construed as requiring either of them to furnish such
information as would, in the judgment of the other party possessing
the information, interfere with the orderly conduct of its operation.”

The WHO mandate is to look after the health on our planet, while the
IAEA is to promote nuclear energy. In light of recent industrial
failures involving nuclear power plants, many prominent scientists and
public health officials have criticized WHO’s non-competing
relationship with IEAE that has stymied efforts to address effects and
disseminate information about the 1986 Chernobyl accident, so that
current harm may be documented and future harm prevented.

For years, concerned individuals have held vigils outside WHO’s Geneva
headquarters urging it to function as an independent agency of the
United Nations, free of influence from the IAEA because they want to
prevent another tragedy. Chernobyl has shown that societies everywhere
– especially Japan, France, India, China, the United States and
Germany – must distribute stable potassium iodide (KI) before an
accident and must provide independent, publicly available radiation
monitoring of both food and individual in-body irradiation levels with
the aim of documenting the danger and preventing additional harm.

On the 20th anniversary of Chernobyl, WHO and the IAEA published the
“Chernobyl Forum Report,” mentioning only 350 sources, mainly from the
English literature, while in reality there are more than 30,000
publications and up to 170,000 sources that address the consequences
of Chernobyl. By 2006, there had been 10 major publications concerning
Chernobyl published in England, Germany, Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and
the United States, with scientists currently publishing new data.

After waiting two decades for the findings of Chernobyl to be
recognized by the United Nations, three scientists, Alexey Yablokov,
Vasily Nesterenko and Alexey Nesterenko undertook the task to collect,
abstract and translate some 5,000 articles reported by multiple
scientists, who observed first-hand the effects from the fallout.
These had been published largely in Slavic languages and not
previously available in translation. The result was “Chernobyl:
Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the Environment,”
published by the New York Academy of Sciences in 2009.

According to the official records, the destruction of the Chernobyl
reactor was the result of both design factors and human error. Many
technocrats hope that engineering feats will provide benefits for
society, but from the sinking of the Titanic to the recent British
Petroleum oil blowout in the Gulf of Mexico, it is apparent that
neither technology nor humans are error-proof. To mitigate this and
any future nuclear disasters, it is critical to learn about the extent
of the Chernobyl disaster and continue research into the effects upon
the biosphere and all that live in it.

The greatest amount of radioactivity fell outside of Belarus, Ukraine
and European Russia, extending across the Northern Hemisphere as far
away as Asia, North Africa and North America, while the greatest
concentrations continue to affect the 13 million living in Belarus,
Ukraine and European Russia.

Immediately after the catastrophe, release of information was limited,
and there was a delay in collecting data. WHO, supported by
governments worldwide, should have been pro-active and led the way to
provide readily accessible information. These omissions resulted in
several effects: limited monitoring of fallout levels, delays in
getting stable potassium iodide to people, lack of care for many and
delay in prevention of contamination of the food supply.

Key to understanding the effects is the difference between external
and internal radiation. While external radiation, as from x-rays,
neutron, gamma and cosmic rays, can harm and kill, internal radiation
– alpha and beta particles – when absorbed by ingestion and inhalation
releases damaging energy in direct contact with tissues and cells.

Radiobiological science is not new, and Chernobyl’s adverse outcomes
were to be expected, but new adverse effects in humans, animals and
plants were documented for the first time by those who directly
observed the human and biologic populations exposed to the fallout.

Environmental consequences
As a result of the accumulation of Cesium-137 (Cs-137), Strontium-90
(Sr-90), Plutonium (Pu) and Americium (Am) in the root soil layer,
radionuclides have continued to build in plants over recent years.
Moving with water to the above-ground parts of plants, the
radionuclides – which earlier had disappeared from the surface –
concentrate in the edible components, resulting in increased levels of
internal irradiation and dose rates in people, despite natural
disintegration and decreasing total amounts of radionuclides over
time.

Bioaccumulation results in concentration in plants, mushrooms and
animals and can increase a thousand-fold as compared with
concentrations in soil and water. The factors of accumulation and
transition vary considerably by season even for the same species,
making it difficult to discern dangerous levels of radionuclides in
plants and animals that appear to be safe to eat. Unfortunately one
cannot see, smell or taste radioactive isotopes and, in general, they
cannot be cleaned up.

While there have been some reports of wildlife thriving in the 30-km
exclusion zone around Chernobyl, the appearance is deceptive, with
most being immigrants. According to morphogenetic, cytogenetic and
immunological tests, all of the populations of plants, fishes,
amphibians and mammals that were studied there are in poor condition.
This zone is analogous to a “black hole,” essentially a micro
evolutionary “boiler,” where gene pools of living creatures are
actively transforming, with unpredictable consequences.

The accumulation of Sr-90 into plants is greater than that of Cs-137,
but it varies by species, population and area. Thus, grazing animals
concentrate Sr-90 in their milk, and then into the food supply.

People who rely upon wild plants and game animals found their food
supplies diminished, as mushrooms, wild game and berries were
contaminated and could not be used as food.

Plants developed deformities of their roots, fruits, leaves, pollen
and spores, and land and aquatic plants show chromosomal changes and
mutations that were rare or unheard of before the catastrophe.

It may be that disappearance of one or more species in an ecosystem
may bring about the collapse of an entire system.

Radioactive contamination re-circulates through the biosphere via
rain, snow, fire and water. Seasonal growth and decay of plants
contributes to spread contamination to other plants and animals. Fires
spread plant and soil contamination via air currents, and the
spectacular wildfires in Russia that occurred in 2010 have not been
fully documented.

Adverse human health findings
Those profoundly – and expectedly – affected are the liquidators, the
young and healthy men and women who worked to stop the fires and to
contain the release of radioactivity. Miners were recruited and many
worked to tunnel under the reactor.

Of the estimated 830,000 people conscripted to do the work, by 2005,
some 125,000 – 15 percent – were dead, mostly from circulatory and
blood diseases and malignancies. Of those from Belarus who worked May
to June of 1986, versus those who worked July to December 1986, more
developed stomach or thyroid disease and had a greater incidence of
cancer. Malignancies were expected, given the liquidators’ close
proximity to intense radioactivity.

Heart disease accounted for 55 percent of deaths in the earlier
workers. The increase in non-malignant diseases was new to the world
of radiation medicine, and documented only because there were so many
victims and so many scientists and physicians who observed the
victims.

Children born to liquidator families were seriously affected with
birth defects, thyroid cancer, an increase in central nervous system
tumors – in Kiev – and generally poor health. There was also an
overall increase in juvenile morbidity, cataracts in children and
diseases characteristic of accelerated aging.

In Belarus and the area of Ukraine around the Chernobyl site, children
in general have poor health, including loss of intellect. Based upon
the research of multiple researchers, it is estimated that in the
heavily contaminated areas of Belarus, only 20 percent of children are
considered healthy, placing an enormous burden upon governmental
resources to provide medical care and education for those affected.

Significant adverse human health findings
General morbidity increased all of the contaminated territories and is
correlated with the density of radioactive contamination as documented
in “Chernobyl: Consequences of the Catastrophe for People and the
Environment.”

Blood and circulatory systems:
Radioactive contamination resulted in diseases of the blood, blood-
forming organs and the circulatory system and is a major factor in
overall morbidity for inhabitants of contaminated territories,
including evacuees, migrants, liquidators and their children. It is
becoming clear that one of the common reasons for these functional
impairments is radioactive destruction of the endothelium, the
covering of the inner surface of vessels. Leukemia incidence, largely
involving the bone marrow damage, increased not only in children and
liquidators, but also in the general adult population.

Endocrine system:
All forecasts concerning thyroid cancer have been wrong. Chernobyl
related thyroid cancers have rapid onset and aggressive development,
mostly in the papillary form, affecting both children and adults.

The marked increase in thyroid disease and thyroid cancer in children
is linked to the release of radioactive iodine. Of concern is damage
to the thyroid of the unborn, with concomitant loss of intellectual
function. To date, an important finding is that for every case of
thyroid cancer there are about 1,000 cases of other forms of thyroid
gland pathology. In Belarus alone, experts estimate that up to 1.5
million people are at risk of thyroid disease.

Immune system:
The quantity and activity of various groups of lymphocytes and thus
the production of antibodies, including various immunoglobulins, stem
cells and thrombocytes, are altered. The ultimate consequences are
immunodeficiency and an increase in the frequency and seriousness of
infections and of acute and chronic diseases. The suppression of
immunity as a result of this radioactive contamination is known as
“Chernobyl AIDS.”

Respiratory system:
There was a marked increase in respiratory morbidity everywhere in the
contaminated territories. In the first days after the catastrophe,
respiratory problems of the mouth, throat and trachea in adults were
basically linked to the gaseous aerosol forms of Iodine-131 (I-131),
Ruthenium-106 (Ru-106), and Cerium-144 (Ce-144). Further damage to the
respiratory system was caused by “hot particles” – the firm particles
of uranium fuel melted together with other radionuclides. “Chernobyl
dust” has been found in liquidators’ bronchial tubes, bronchioles and
alveoli for many years.

Reproductive system:
A wide spectrum of reproductive function disorders and urogenital
morbidity exists in those living in contaminated territories. These
include abnormal development of the genitalia, sperm pathologies,
including dead sperm, low sperm mobility, disorders of secondary
sexual characteristics, degenerate changes of the placenta, delay in
sexual maturation, primary infertility, complications during pregnancy
and birth, and perinatal and neonatal deaths.

Significantly high levels of alpha radionuclides were found in bone
tissue of aborted fetuses from mothers living in the contaminated
territories in Ukraine. Changes in sex ratios at birth were documented
in Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Poland and Sweden.

Genetic changes:
Chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood cells were among the first
ominous signs of the Chernobyl catastrophe and revealed a correlation
between the level of aberrations and a number of pathological
conditions. Somatic chromosomal mutations were linked to congenital
malformations and protein polymorphism. Mutations in mini-satellite
DNA are only some of the genetic changes resulting from radionuclide
exposure, but the overwhelming majority of Chernobyl-induced genetic
changes will not become apparent for several generations.

Skeletal system:
Liquidators and residents of the contaminated territories often
complain of bone and joint pain. Bone function is a balance between
the formation of bone and the natural re-absorption process. Because a
number of isotopes become deposited in bone these diseases may be due
to either hormonal disorders or direct damage by irradiation to the
cellular predecessors of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Sr-90, produced
in the splitting of uranium is deposited in children’s bones and teeth
and linked to diseases later in life. (Sherman, 2000; Mangano and
Sherman, 2011)

In contaminated Ukrainian territories, children have been born without
bones (“jellyfish children”), a condition seen previously only in the
Marshall Islands after the nuclear tests of the 1950s.

In contaminated Ukrainian territories, children have been born without
bones (“jellyfish children”), a condition seen previously only in the
Marshall Islands after the nuclear tests of the 1950s.
Cataracts:
Throughout the more contaminated territories, visual abnormalities
occur with greater frequency than in less contaminated areas and
include premature cataracts, vitreous degeneration, refraction errors,
uvitis and conjunctivitis. It is disturbing that only after 2000 did
medical authorities begin to recognize the radiogenic origin of the
large increase in cataracts among liquidators and evacuees from the
Chernobyl territories. Official recognition occurred 10 years (!)
after doctors began to sound the alarm and 13 years after the problem
was first registered.

Congenital malformations and anomalies:
Wherever there was Chernobyl radioactive contamination, there was an
increase in children born with anomalies and congenital malformations
(CMs), including previously rare multiple structural impairments of
the limbs, head and body. (Wertelecki, 2010). Analysis of more than
31,000 Belarussian abortuses revealed that the incidence of officially
registered CMs increased in all of the contaminated territories and
was especially significant in areas with Cs-137 levels of
contamination higher than 15 Curies per square kilometer (15 Ci/km2).

In Belarus, some 24 percent of the children in the territories with
Cs-137 levels less than 1 Ci/km2 were born with CMs; 30 percent had
CMs in territories with levels of 1-5 Ci/km2, and 83 percent had CMs
in districts with contamination levels above 15 Ci/km2. The Russian
State Registry, which included more than 30,000 children born to
liquidators, revealed 46.7 percent had congenital anomalies and
“genetic syndromes,” with the prevalence of bone and muscular
abnormalities being 3.6-fold higher than corresponding normal Russian
parameters.

With the passage of more than a decade, we do not know the full extent
of the health of children and grandchildren born to those who were
contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout, but research must continue to
find out. (Holt, E., 2010)

Central nervous system:
The most serious effect of the Chernobyl radiation is to the brain and
is a major medical, social and economic problem for the affected
individual, the persons’ family and society at large.

Studies of liquidators and those irradiated in utero reveal that even
small amounts of nuclear radiation, considered harmless by official
measures of radiation exposure, resulted in marked organic damage of
the frontal, temporal and occipitoparietal lobes of the brain. These
organic changes are reflected in nervous system dysfunction, including
perception, short-term memory, attention span and operative thinking
and result in behavioral and mental disorders and diminished
intelligence.

Recent studies show that schoolchildren from the most exposed areas in
Sweden who were in the sensitive gestational period during the
Chernobyl release were significantly less likely to qualify for high
school. (Almond et al., 2007) A recent study of Norwegian adolescents
revealed the adverse effect of low dose Chernobyl radiation exposure
in utero on cognitive function (verbal IQ). (Heiervang et al., 2010)

Inexplicably, WHO had a special project on brain damage in the
Chernobyl territories, which was abruptly stopped after the first
definitive results. It is becoming clear that low-dose and low-dose
rates of radiation have a profound effect upon fine structures of the
nervous system, upon higher nervous system function and upon
neuropsychiatry function.

Many pro-nuclear critics have attributed the latter to “radio-phobia,”
but documentation of disease is not limited to the human population.
With few exceptions, animal and plant systems that were studied
demonstrated structural abnormalities in offspring, loss of tolerance
and viability, and genetic changes. (Moller and Mousseau, 2010) Wild
animals and plants did not drink alcohol, smoke or worry about
compensation.

Total number of victims
The number of victims is one of the most contentious issues between
scientists who collected data first-hand and WHO/IAEA that estimated
only 9,000 deaths.

The most detailed estimate of additional deaths has been done in
Russia by comparing rates in six highly contaminated territories with
overall Russian averages and with those of six lesser-contaminated
areas, maintaining similar geographical and socioeconomic parameters.
There were over 7 million people in each area. Documentation is as
follows:

The region under study exceeded the Russian average in both over-all
mortality and increased rate of mortality. The total number of
additional deaths, calculated on the basis of the standardized
mortality rates, is estimated at 60,400 (95 percent CI: 54,880 to
65,920) – or 34 persons per 1,000. From 1990 to 2004, the number of
additional deaths represents 3.75 percent of the entire population of
the contaminated territories and agrees well with the figure of 4.2
percent for Ukraine. (National Ukrainian Report, 2006)

For the populations in all the contaminated territories together –
European Russia 1,789,000 (1999), Belarus 1,571,000 (2001) and Ukraine
2,290,000 (2002) – and based on the additional rate in Russia, the
total number of extra deaths from Chernobyl in Belarus, Ukraine and
the European part of Russia is estimated to be 212,000 for the first
15 years after the catastrophe.

While this calculation seems straightforward, it might underestimate
the real figures for three reasons according to Khudoley et al.
(2006):

1. Official data about the radioactive contamination for Belgorod and
Lipetsk provinces do not correlate with corresponding changes in
health statistics after Chernobyl, meaning that the differences in
mortality between contaminated and non-contaminated populations that
were found might actually be greater. If so, the Ukrainian mortality
rate of 4.2 percent may be more realistic than the Russian 3.75
percent.

2. It is well known that there was considerable contamination –
sometimes more than 1 Ci/km2 – not only in the six regions under
consideration but also in 10 other regions of the European part of
Russia, meaning that the total death toll for Russia may be higher.

3. The calculations cover a 15-year period (1990–2004), omitting the
years between 1986-1990.

When we apply the additional mortality of 34 extra deaths per 1,000
population for the 15 years 1990-2004, which was derived above, to the
cohort of liquidators not living in contaminated zones (400,000), to
the evacuees and to people who moved away from contaminated areas
(350,000), then we expect another 25,500 deaths in this period. The
overall number of Chernobyl-related deaths up until 2004 in the former
USSR is estimated to be 237,500.

Assuming that 10 million people in Europe, outside the former Soviet
Union, live in territories with a Cs-137 ground contamination higher
than 40 kilobecquerels per square meter, or 40 kBq/m2 (>1.08 Ci/km2),
and that the mortality risk is only half that determined in the
Chernobyl region, that is, 17 deaths per 1,000 inhabitants – and with
better food and better medical and socioeconomic status – up until
2004, we can expect an additional 170,000 deaths in Europe.

Assuming further that the other 150 million Europeans living in
territories with a Cs-137 ground contamination below 40 kBq/m2, the
additional mortality will be 10-fold less – i.e., 1.7 deaths per 1,000
in 1990-2004 – then we can expect 150,000 x 1.7 or 255,000 more deaths
in the rest of Europe.

Given that 20 percent of the radionuclides released from the Chernobyl
reactor were deposited outside Europe, with an exposed population of
190 million and with a risk factor of 1.7 per 1,000 as before, we can
expect 323,000 additional deaths outside Europe by 2004.

Data from multiple scientists estimate the overall mortality from the
Chernobyl catastrophe, for the period from April 1986 to the end of
2004, to be 985,000, similar to those of Gofman (1994a) and Bertell
(2006) and a hundred times more than the WHO/IAEA estimate.

Overall effects of radioactive fallout
While fallout was measured in many countries, multiple short half-life
isotopes were largely un-measured. Decades of research have confirmed
that radioisotopes become deposited in various parts of living
systems. In humans, I-131 and I-129 concentrate in the thyroid, Cs-137
in soft tissue, and Sr-90 in teeth and bones.

Combined effects from exposure to multiple isotopes that concentrate
in various portions of a human or animal have not been fully examined,
however, by comparing disease rates in communities with increased
levels of radiation to others with low levels, or pre-Chernobyl
levels, while maintaining similar socio-economic factors, distinct
patterns of effect emerged in those who received the Chernobyl
fallout.

Fallout deposition was uneven and remains uneven. Aerial measurements
were largely of Cs-137 fallout, which has a gamma component detectable
from a plane or helicopter, but even with monitoring, hot spots
remained ill defined. The effects of “hot particles” was first
documented when upper respiratory, skin and eye problems became
manifest soon after the Chernobyl explosions. The particles consist of
radioactive metal, largely alpha emitters that cause significant
damage when in contact with living cells.

The effects from the Chernobyl catastrophe change over time, many
ongoing and some increasing in adverse effect as, for example,
Plutonium-241 (Pu-241) that decays to Americium-241 (Am-241), with a
half-life of 432 years. Am-241 is water-soluble, moves through the
food chain, and emits both gamma and alpha radiation. The ultimate
effect upon migratory birds and sea life is not yet determined, but
such contamination could result in the collapse of significant numbers
of species and food sources.

A 2008 publication of the Ministry of Ukraine of Emergencies and
Affairs of Public Protection from the Consequences of Chernobyl
(“Atlas of Ukraine Radioactive Contamination”) shows dire predictions
for the spread of increasing amounts of Am-241 around the Chernobyl
site, westward into the Pinsk Marshes that form the border between
Ukraine and Belarus, and south into the Dnepr River where it flows
into the Black Sea near Odessa, empties through the Bosporus to the
Aegean, and ultimately reaches the Mediterranean Sea.

The westward spread is augmented by commercial canal traffic that
connects the Priyapat River to the Bug, Vistula and Oder Rivers and
finally into the Baltic Sea. Thus in addition to the atmospheric
spread immediately after the disaster, contamination continues to
spread via water routes.

To date, not every living system has been studied, but of those that
have – animals, birds, fish, amphibians, invertebrates, insects,
trees, plants, bacteria, viruses and humans – many with genetic
instability across generations all sustained changes, some permanent
and some fatal. Wild and domestic animals develop diseases similar to
those found in humans

It takes 10 decades for an isotope to completely decay, thus the
approximately 30-year half-lives for Sr-90 and Cs-137 mean it will
take nearly three centuries before they have decayed, a mere blink of
the eye when compared to Plutonium-239 (Pu-239) with a half-life of
24,100 years.

The human and economic costs are enormous: In the first 25 years, the
direct economic damage to Belarus, Ukraine and Russia has exceeded
$500 billion. To mitigate some of the consequences, Belarus spends
about 20 percent of its national annual budget, Ukraine up to 6
percent and Russia up to 1 percent. Funding from other countries and
from the U.N. is essential to continue scientific studies and to
provide help to those who continue to live with significant
radioactive contamination.

The human and economic costs are enormous: In the first 25 years, the
direct economic damage to Belarus, Ukraine and Russia has exceeded
$500 billion. Belarus spends about 20 percent of its national annual
budget to mitigate some of the consequences.
The tragedy of Chernobyl shows that societies everywhere – especially
Japan, France, India, China, the United States and Germany – must
consider the importance of independent, publicly available radiation
monitoring of both food and individual in-body irradiation levels with
the aim of documenting the danger and preventing additional harm and
to have stable potassium iodide (KI) readily available to prevent
thyroid damage.

Given profound weather effects – earthquakes, floods, tsunamis etc. –
human fallibility and military conflicts, many believe that it is only
a matter of time before there is another nuclear catastrophe. Nuclear
fallout knows no state or national boundaries and will contribute to
increase in illnesses, decrease in intelligence and in instability
throughout the world. The economic costs of radioactive pollution and
care of contaminated citizens are staggering. No country can maintain
itself if its citizens are economically, intellectually, politically
and socially impoverished.*

When a radiation release occurs, we do not know in advance the part of
the biosphere it will contaminate, the animals, plants and people that
will be affected, nor the amount or duration of harm. In many cases,
damage is random, depending upon the health, age and status of
development and the amount, kind and variety of radioactive
contamination that reaches humans, animals and plants. For this
reason, international support of research on the consequences of
Chernobyl must continue in order to mitigate the ongoing and
increasing damage. Access to information must be transparent and open
to all, across all borders. The WHO must assume independent
responsibility in support of international health.

Given the continuing and known problems caused by the Chernobyl
catastrophe, we must ask ourselves: Before we commit ourselves to
economic and technological support of nuclear energy, who, what and
where are we willing to sacrifice and for how long?

Footnotes
Almond, D., Edlund, L. and Palme, M., “Chernobyl’s subclinical legacy:
Prenatal exposure to radioactive fallout and school outcomes in
Sweden.” Retrieved Aug. 3, 2009, from http://www.nuwinfo.se/almond-edlund-palme20070811.html
2007

Bertell, R. “The death toll of the Chernobyl accident.” In: Busby,
C.C. and Yablokov, A.V., (Eds.), “ECRR Chernobyl 20 Years On: Health
Effects of the Chernobyl Accident.” ECRR Doc. 1, Green Audit Books,
Aberystwyth, pp. 245, 248, 2006

Gofman, J.W., “Chernobyl Accident: Radioactive Consequences for the
Existing and Future Generations.” Vysheihsaya Shcola, Minsk. 576 pp.,
1994 (in Russian)

Heiervang, K.S., et al. “Effect of low dose ionizing radiation
exposure in utero in cognitive function in adolescence.” Scandinavian
Journal of Psychology, 2010, doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.2010.00814.x

Holt, E., “Debate over health effects of Chernobyl re-ignited.”
Lancet. 375(9724): 1424-1425, 2010

Khudoley, V.V., Blokov, I.P., Sadovnichik, T., and Bysaro, S.,
“Attempt to estimate the consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe for
population living in the radiation-contaminated territories of
Russia.” In: Blokov, I.P. (Ed.), “Consequences of Chernobyl Accident:
Estimation and Prognosis of Additional Mortality and Cancer Diseases.”
Center for Independent Environmental Assessment, Greenpeace-Russia,
pp. 3-19, 2006 (in Russian)

Mangano, J.J. and Sherman, J.D., “Elevated in vivo strontium-90 from
nuclear weapons test fallout among cancer decedents: A case-control
study of deciduous teeth,” International Journal of Health Services,
41(1):137–58, 2011

Moller, A.P., Mousseau, T.A., “Efficiency of bio-indicators for low-
level radiation under field conditions.” Ecological Indicators, doi:
10.1016/j.ecolinf.2010.06.013 (pdf)

Ministry of Ukraine, “Emergencies and Affairs of Public Protection
from the Consequences of Chernobyl,” “Atlas of Ukraine Radioactive
Contamination,” Intelligence Systems GEO, Ltd., 2002, 2008

National Ukrainian Report. “Twenty Years of Chernobyl Catastrophe.
Future Outlook.” (Kiev) www.mns.gov.ua/news_show.php? 2006 (in
Russian)

Sherman, J.D. “Life’s Delicate Balance: Causes and Prevention of
Breast Cancer.” Taylor and Francis. New York. 273 pp. 2000

Wertelecki, W. “Malformations in a Chornobyl-impacted region.”
Pediatrics, 125(4): 836-843, 2010

Yablokov, A.V., Nesterenko, V.B., Nesterenko, A.V., “Chernobyl
Consequences for People and Nature.” “Nauka” Publ., Sankt-Petersburg,
367 pp., 2007

Yablokov, A.V., Nesterenko, V.B., and Nesterenko, A.V., Sherman-
Nevinger, J.D., Consulting Editor, “Chernobyl: Consequences of the
Catastrophe for People and the Environment,” New York Academy of
Sciences, 1181:1-327, 2009

SOURCE: http://sfbayview.com/2011/chernobyl-consequences-of-the-catastrophe-25-years-later/
Taka
2011-06-07 08:27:44 UTC
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Raw Message
Ground in Tokyo 220 km from the crippled plant is highly contaminated
- see for yourself:



5.5 uSv/hour is more than you are exposed to on a transcontinental
flight at an altitude 10km and the airplane radiation is not
absorbable into the body. Moreover this Geiger counter only measures
gamma rays not the most dangerous plutonium alpha rays which were used
to poison the Russian spy:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poisoning_of_Alexander_Litvinenko

and the nuclear hell at Fukushima is still going on:

http://atmc.jp/plant/rad/?n=1

"If you inhale a millionth of a gram of plutonium, the surrounding
cells receive a very, very high dose. Most die within that area,
because it’s an alpha emitter. The cells on the periphery remain
viable. They mutate, and the regulatory genes are damaged. Years
later, that person develops cancer…..It’s imperative that people
understand that internal emitters cause cancer, but the incubation
time for cancer is any time from two to 60 years. …
"
VIDEO Nuclear industry propaganda about low-level radiation is
“absolute rubbish” says physician who taught at Harvard Med School —
It’s all about internal emitters« Energy News Energy News, HELEN
CALDICOTT 4 April 11, : … Up to a million people have already died
from Chernobyl, and people will continue to die from cancer for
virtually the rest of time. What we should know is that a millionth of
a gram of plutonium, or less, can induce cancer, or will induce
cancer. Each reactor has 250 kilos, or 500 pounds, of plutonium in it.
You know, there’s enough plutonium in these reactors to kill everyone
on earth.

"I was commissioned to write an article for the New England Journal of
Medicine about the dangers of nuclear power. I spent a year
researching it. You’ve bought the propaganda from the nuclear
industry. They say it’s low-level radiation. That’s absolute rubbish.
If you inhale a millionth of a gram of plutonium, the surrounding
cells receive a very, very high dose. Most die within that area,
because it’s an alpha emitter. The cells on the periphery remain
viable. They mutate, and the regulatory genes are damaged. Years
later, that person develops cancer. Now, that’s true for radioactive
iodine, that goes to the thyroid; cesium-137, that goes to the brain
and muscles; strontium-90 goes to bone, causing bone cancer and
leukemia. It’s imperative, George, because you’re highly intelligent
and a very important commentator, that you understand internal
emitters and radiation, and it’s not low level to the cells that are
exposed. Radiobiology is imperative to understand these days. …

As it leaks into the water over time, it will bioconcentrate in the
food chains, in the breast milk, in the fetuses, that are thousands of
times more radiosensitive than adults. One x-ray to the pregnant
abdomen doubles the incidence of leukemia in the child. And over time,
nuclear waste will induce epidemics of cancer, leukemia and genetic
disease, and random compulsory genetic engineering. And we’re not the
only species with genes, of course. It’s plants and animals. So, this
is an absolute catastrophe, the likes of which the world has never
seen before. …

I’m a physician, highly trained. I was on the faculty at Harvard
Medical School. My specialty is cystic fibrosis, the most common
genetic disease of childhood. …

It’s imperative that people understand that internal emitters cause
cancer, but the incubation time for cancer is any time from two to 60
years. …

Nuclear industry propaganda about low-level radiation is “absolute
rubbish” says physician who taught at Harvard Med School — It’s all
about internal emitters"
Taka
2011-06-07 08:29:36 UTC
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Raw Message
How Low Doses Of Radiation Can Cause Heart Disease And Stroke

A mathematical model constructed by researchers at Imperial College
London predicts the risk of cardiovascular disease (heart attacks,
stroke) associated with low background levels of radiation. The model
shows that the risk would vary almost in proportion with dose.

Results, published October 23 in the open-access journal PLoS
Computational Biology, are consistent with risk levels reported in
previous studies involving nuclear workers.

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and one of the
leading causes of disability in developed countries, as reported in
the paper and also by the World Health Organization. For some time,
scientists have understood how high-dose radiotherapy (RT) causes
inflammation in the heart and large arteries and how this results in
the increased levels of cardiovascular disease observed in many groups
of patients who receive RT. However, in the last few years, studies
have shown that there may also be cardiovascular risks associated with
the much lower fractionated doses of radiation received by groups such
as nuclear workers, but it is not clear what biological mechanisms are
responsible.

The Imperial College London team, led by Dr. Mark Little, has explored
a novel mechanism that suggests that radiation kills monocytes (a type
of white blood cell) in the arterial wall, which would otherwise bind
to monocyte chemo-attractant protein 1 (MCP-1). The resultant higher
levels of MCP-1 cause inflammation which leads to cardiovascular
disease. As well as being consistent with what is seen in nuclear
workers, the changes in MCP-1 caused by dietary cholesterol that are
predicted by the model are also consistent with experimental and
epidemiologic data.

If the mechanism is valid it implies that risks from low dose
radiation exposures (e.g., medical and dental X-rays), which until now
have been assumed to result only from cancer, may have been
substantially underestimated, say the authors.

The biological mechanism has yet to be experimentally tested. Further
research is planned to investigate this.

SOURCE: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/10/091022202710.htm
Taka
2011-06-07 08:32:14 UTC
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Raw Message
Radioactive Waste Risks to the Great Lakes: Lessons from Fukushima

"...a serious accident is not just likely but inevitable."

This stark warning came from George Galatis to TIME Magazine in March,
1996. In an article entitled "NUCLEAR WARRIORS" by Eric Pooley, the
cautionary tale of whisteblowers George Galatis and George Betancourt
was recounted. Galatis, backed by Betancourt, suffered several years
of harrassment and intimidation from nuclear utility NU (Northeast
Utilities), as he struggled to force regulatory compliance at
Millstone Unit 1 in Connecticut. For two decades, NU had routinely
flouted U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) safety regulations
regarding thermal heat loads in high-level radioactive waste storage
pools. Not only were full cores of exceedingly hot irradiated nuclear
fuel rods routinely offloaded into storage pools -- an action that's
supposed to only be taken in emergency situations -- but plant workers
actually raced the offloading, in clear violation of NRC safety rules.
Such "hot rod races" actually caused a worker's rubber booties to
melt, as he was ordered to quickly unbolt the just-operating reactor
lid to allow for irradiated nuclear fuel unloading. Such flippant
disregard for the risks at the "ass end of the nuclear fuel cycle"
risked high-level radioactive waste storage pool boiling -- or even
sudden drain down. Either way, irradiated nuclear fuel could catch
fire, with catastrophic radioactivity releases outside containment,
and nightmarish consequences downwind. The Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear
catastrophe has shown that such risks are not abstract, hypothetical,
or theoretical -- but all too real. Despite all this, NRC was entirely
complicit with NU's disregard for high-level radioactive waste storage
pool safety. Despite supposed reforms in the aftermath of Galatis's
revelations, NRC still allows high-level radioactive waste storage
pools to be packed to the gills, without emergency back up power
supplies, nor even water level or temperature gauges. As Galatis
warned TIME in 1996, "...a serious accident is not just likely but
inevitable."

Commenting on the Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear catastrophe, including
large-scale releases of hazardous radioactivity from burning high-
level radioactive waste storage pools, Galatis said to Intel Hub on
April 11, 2011:

“Since the start of the Japanese nuclear crisis, I have been very
concerned about its consequences to the Japanese people, to the
general public, and about the lack of attention to what I perceive as
being the real issue...The real issue is that of nuclear safety. Right
now the true risk to public health and safety associated with the
generation of nuclear power is intentionally kept from the public.
Because of misplaced trust, these enormous risks are in effect being
enforced on the public without their knowledge or consent. People need
to know about and agree to accept the real risks involved so that when
a scenario like Fukushima—or worse—arises here, there is already a
degree of acceptance. Without this formal public acceptance, nuclear
power will never be cost effective nor will it survive.”

Galatis calls high-level radioactive waste storage pools in the U.S.
"potential timebombs," with risks greater than Chernobyl.

Despite Galatis's courageous whistleblowing nearly 20 years ago (he
effectively sacrificed his career and livelihood, and was run out of
the nuclear power industry, with no protection from NRC), NRC has
allowed nuclear utilities to continue adding 20 to 30 tons of
additional high-level radioactive waste to their storage pools each
year. By 2015, almost every pool in the U.S. will be overfilled to the
maximum extent possible. Utilities keep them full, rather than
transferring the high-level radioactive wastes to safer (although
still not safe) dry cask storage. Why? To save money in the near term
-- in order to defer the relatively minor costs of installing dry cask
storage.

Most ironically, Millstone Unit 1 -- despite having been permamently
shut down, in large part thanks to Galatis's self-sacrificing
whistleblowing -- retains a packed-to-the-gills high-level radioactive
waste storage pools, despite having an identical design -- the General
Electric Mark 1 Boiling Water Reactor -- as the Fukushima Daiichi
nuclear power plant's Units 1 to 4. Beyond Nuclear, supported by a
growing number of grassroots groups who live in the shadows of 24 U.S.
Mark 1s, has fired an emergency enforcement petition off to NRC
demanding back up power on the pools, and immediate suspension of
operating licenses until the lessons of Fukushima can be learned, and
applied in the U.S.

SOURCE: http://www.beyondnuclear.org/radioactive-waste-whatsnew/2011/5/30/a-serious-accident-is-not-just-likely-but-inevitable.html
Taka
2011-06-08 01:43:48 UTC
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Raw Message
Chernobyl Heart

On April 26, 1986, the worst nuclear accident in history occurred when
a reactor exploded at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine,
releasing 90 times the radioactivity of the atomic bombs dropped on
Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Sixteen years later, award-winning filmmaker
Maryann De Leo took her camera to ground zero, following the
devastating trail radiation leaves behind in hospitals, orphanages,
mental asylums and evacuated villages. The Academy Award®-winning
documentary short debuts immediately after the America Undercover
special “Indian Point: Imagining the Unimaginable”.

Following Adi Roche, founder of Ireland’s Chernobyl Children’s
Project, CHERNOBYL HEART opens in the exclusion zone, the most
radioactive environment on earth. From there, Roche travels to
Belarus, home to many of the children she seeks to aid. The film
reveals those hardest hit by radiation, including thyroid cancer
patients and children suffering from unfathomable congenital birth and
heart defects.

Despite the fact that 99% of Belarus is contaminated with radioactive
material, many people refuse to leave their homes behind. Asked why he
would not move, the father of a radiation victim replies, “To leave
the motherland where you were born and raised, where your soul is
connected to the earth – I would not want to. To move to a new place
is difficult, especially in terms of a job in Belarus and abroad.”

In Belarus, only 15-20% of babies are born healthy. Roche comforts
children who are born with multiple holes in their heart, a condition
known in Belarus as “Chernobyl heart.” A lucky few will have their
heart problems fixed by Dr. William Novick, who heads the
International Children’s Heart Foundation, a non-profit organization
dedicated to helping children with congenital or acquired heart
disease in developing countries throughout the world. After saving the
life of a young girl suffering from Chernobyl heart and being humbled
by her parents’ gratitude, Dr. Novick affirms, “I appreciate this is a
bit of a miracle for them…but we have a certain responsibility to
these kids.”

MOVIE: http://topdocumentaryfilms.com/chernobyl-heart/

RELATED: http://www.wired.com/magazine/2011/04/ff_chernobyl/

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petkau_effect (low dose worst than high
dose)

The place they manufacture these deadly poisons:

http://www.jaea.go.jp/english/04/tokai-cycle/03.htm

Taka
2011-05-31 16:51:16 UTC
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Raw Message
The Plutonium Danger

Fukushima Daiichi's Unit 3 reactor is partially* filled with (melted)
nuclear fuel called MOX - or mixed-oxide fuel - composed of a blend of
uranium-oxide with plutonium-oxide. Plutonium oxide is a molecule that
combines the element plutonium with oxygen - its chemical form is
239Pu02, which is technically called plutonium dioxide (we will call
it just plutonium oxide for simplicity).

Plutonium oxide is not the same as metallic plutonium. The latter is
highly flammable, and combustible. When plutonium metal is in the form
of fine shavings and exposed to air it spontaneously ignites and burns
- this is called a pyrophoric explosion (a pyrphoric material
spontaneously ignites upon contact with air). Upon exploding, metallic
plutonium adheres to oxygen to form plutonium oxide particles, which
are extremely tiny (0.2-2 micron sized) and can exist sometimes as
just one molecule in size. For this reason plutonium oxide is
extremely 'mobile' - it can travel long distances on winds. Because of
accidents throughout the atomic age, the most common form of plutonium
in the environment is plutonium oxide. Plutonium oxide lingers in our
environment from plutonium that was burned (i.e. fires at Greenham
Common, Thule, Windscale, Rocky Flats, nuclear rocket testing at NRDS,
etc...) and from plutonium oxide that was deliberately or accidentally
released (i.e., Project 57, Palomares, SNAP 9A re-entry). Because
plutonium oxide is insoluble, the greatest health risk is via
inhalation - actually this is the most hazardous chemical form for the
production of lung cancer (Note however that soil funguses can change
plutonium oxide into a soluble form.)

Plutonium oxide (or dioxide), unlike metallic plutonium, won't change
its form when burned. It is already oxidized. Plutonium oxide is not a
gas - it is a solid.

So, the plutonium oxide fuel in Unit 3 won't explode upon contact with
air but as soon as it escapes from containment as a dust particle it
will travel considerable distances - this is known because if we can
conclude one thing from previous releases of plutonium oxide into the
atmosphere during the atomic age it is this: plutonium oxide ends up
traveling farther in distance than anyone ever imagines because it is
so 'mobile.' (This is the same case for uranium oxide, which is a
concern regarding the use of Depleted Uranium.) So, because (1) large
quantities of radiochemicals were ejected by the force of Fukushima's
hydrogen explosions and also from vaporization** - aka evaporation -
(from the high temperature of the melting fuel rods) and (2) plutonium
oxide can travel as easily in air as any other solid radiochemical -
it should be obvious that plutonium (and uranium) oxides landed
wherever fell radiocesiums, radiotelluriums, etc... across Japan and
the Northern Hemisphere. We can also assume that since the melted fuel
rods and the spent fuel rods, which in fact both contain metallic
plutonium (since all reactors naturally create weapons-grade metallic
plutonium in large quantities), have been exposed to air to varying
degrees, then this metallic plutonium has partially experienced
oxidization (combustion) and added to the inventory of plutonium oxide
in Japan's and Northern Hemisphere air.

This means that large sections of the Japanese public could have
already absorbed lifetime fatal doses of radiation just from plutonium
oxide - futhermore, because the crisis (and radiation releases) at
Fukushima is ongoing and Japanese society is largely ignorant of the
airborne and dietary threats posed by the environmental plutonium and
has implemented few measures for mitigating exposures, we can expect
that the total fatal cancer burden in Japan could rise theoretically
to 100% in one generation. This means that everyone in Japan who lives
to adulthood in the first half of the 21st century and doesn't
contract any other life-threatening diseases will experience premature
death due to cancer from their radiation exposures - the blame mostly
will be from Fukushima, but part of the blame will be from other
Japanese (and N. and S. Korean and Chinese) reactor emissions,
'background levels' of global fallout, and exposures to Cold War
legacy plutonium from seafood (thanks to Pacific Proving Ground
contamination) and inhalation (thanks to resuspended Lop Nor and
Soviet nuclear-site contamination).

* According to the article 'Latest find sounds scary but risk is
limited,' published on March 30, 2011 by The Japan Times, "Thirty-two
of the 548 fuel elements in reactor No. 3 use the mixed plutonium and
uranium oxide fuel, according to Tepco." The Fukushima Daiichi plant
began using MOX fuel in September 2010 and was the third plant in
Japan to go 'pluthermal' and experiment with the controversial fuel.
MOX has a lower melting point than conventional fuel - uranium oxide
pellets.

** Note that plutonium oxide has a lower boiling point than plutonium
- the boiling point of plutonium is 3,228 C whereas the boiling point
of plutonium oxide is 2,800 C

MORE AT: http://www.idealist.ws/contamination.php
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